Presentation on theme: "NATO – Credit level Exam Practice NATO in the exam Remember that NATO is an organisation concerned with military and defence issues. Do not discuss NATO."— Presentation transcript:
NATO in the exam Remember that NATO is an organisation concerned with military and defence issues. Do not discuss NATO in questions which ask about economic and financial organisations in Europe. Questions will be worth 4 or 8 marks. NATO could appear as a KU question, an evaluating question or in the investigating section.
2006 Credit SQA In recent years some European countries and their allies have expanded their military actions beyond Europe. Explain, in detail, the reasons why some European countries and their allies have expanded their military actions beyond Europe. Knowledge and Understand, 8 marks. Always try to structure your KU answers – Point – Explain – Example. For 8 marks you should have at least 3 well explained points with examples.
2006 Possible answer Since Sept 11 many European countries have expanded their military actions beyond Europe. After 9/11 Afghanistan was considered by many to be one of the main targets in the war against terrorism. A coalition against terrorism was formed at the end of 2001. Supporters included the USA, France, Russia and the UK. The Taliban was eventually defeated by the Afghan Northern Alliance, heavily assisted by coalition forces. Many Al Quaeda cells were destroyed, lots of caves were blown up but Bin Laden has still never been found. Today there are at least 7000 UK troops in Afghanistan alone trying to restore order and remove terrorist and extreme groups. The UK has been involved in conflict in Iraq.
2006 Possible answer cont… The UK has been involved in conflict in Iraq. Many people thought that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction (WMD) which included nuclear and chemical weapons. At the end of 2002 the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1441 with the intention of disarming Iraq. No weapons were found during inspections but he US and UK were still convinced these weapons existed. Without UN backing, the UK and US invaded Iraq in March 2003. Iraq fell quickly due to a massive ariel bombardment and a land war. Saddam Hussein was finally capture and recently executed. However, today there are still huge problems in Iraq – suicide bombs explode on a weekly basis and many people oppose the presence of UK and US troops so respond using violence. The UK has committed itself to remaining in Iraq until a the state is safe for its people to live in.
2005 General SQA European countries such as the UK have been involved in international conflicts in recent years. Describe two ways in which European countries such as the UK have been involved in international conflicts in recent years. Knowledge and Understand, 4 marks. Always try to structure your KU answers – Point – Explain – Example. For 4 marks you should have 2 well explained points with examples.
2005 Model answer NATO has been involved in Macedonia and Kosovo. In Kosovo they carried out bombing and imposed an oil embargo. However, very quickly their mission moved towards achieving peace – they sent in peacekeeping soldiers (KFOR) to assist with keeping peace and to help the thousands of people who had become refugees. In Macedonia today NATO soldiers are still there (only around 100 troops) – their aim is to keep peace. European countries have also been involved more recently in Afghanistan – a coalition was formed including the UK against terrorism following the 9/11 attacks – the force is called Operation Enduring Freedom. The UK now has over 7000 troops in Afghanistan which has been described as a ‘failure state’.
2004 Credit SQA European countries have taken security measures to protect themselves against threats such as international terrorism. Describe, in detail, some of the security measures taken by European countries to protect themselves against threats such as international terrorism. Knowledge and Understand, 4 marks. Always try to structure your KU answers – Point – Explain – Example. For 4 marks you should have 2 well explained points with examples.
2004 Model answer 9-11 had an immediate effect on the world and on NATO. An emergency meeting was held and as the attack was deemed to have come from Al Qaeda, the collective defence policy came into operation. NATO sent 5 airborne warning and control systems aircraft to the United States and deployed its Standing Naval Force Mediterranean to the Eastern Mediterranean. NATO is considered an important tool in the fight against terrorism. The EU has appointed a counter-terrorism ‘czar’ to co-ordinate counter-terrorism activities across Europe. The EU is also in the process of setting up a new database to include information on both convicted terrorists as well as those under investigation. The EU has also been involved in developing greater airport security.