Presentation on theme: "THE UNION IN PERIL: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR CHAPTER 10 Section 4 Slavery and Secession Why did the South secede?"— Presentation transcript:
THE UNION IN PERIL: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR CHAPTER 10 Section 4 Slavery and Secession Why did the South secede?
Slavery and Secession Pro or Anti SlaveryReasons why Pro or Anti- Slavery Dred Scott decision Lecompton Constitution Debate Douglas; Debates Lincoln; Debates Harpers Ferry John Brown’s Hanging Election of Lincoln Secession
Dred Scott Decision - 1857 Dred Scott lives in Illinois and Wisconsin for 5 years – free states. He argues he has become free by living there. Supreme Court, led by Roger B. Taney, decides –Slaves cannot sue in court b/c they are not full citizens –Slaves are private property, The Federal Govt. cannot take away property w/o due process and therefore cannot prohibit slavery in the territories HISTORICAL CONSEQUENCES: Kansas-Nebraska Act, Missouri Compromise, and Compromise of 1850 are now UNCONSTITUTIONAL!!!
Dred Scott v Sanford, March 1857 “The question is simply this: Can a negro, whose ancestors were imported into this country, and sold as slaves, become a member of the political community formed and brought into existence by the Constitution of the United States, and as such become entitled to all the rights, and privileges, and immunities, guarantied by that instrument to the citizen? One of which rights is the privilege of suing in a court of the United States in the cases specified in the Constitution....” “It is impossible, it would seem, to believe that the great men of the slaveholding States, who took so large a share in framing the Constitution of the United States, and exercised so much influence in procuring its adoption, could have been so forgetful or regardless of their own safety and the safety of those who trusted and confided in them.... “ “Upon the whole, therefore, it is the judgment of this court, that it appears by the record before us that the plaintiff in error is not a citizen of Missouri, in the sense in which that word is used in the Constitution; and that the Circuit Court of the United States, for that reason, had no jurisdiction in the case, and could give no judgment in it. Its judgment for the defendant must, consequently, be reversed, and a mandate issued, directing the suit to be dismissed for want of jurisdiction.” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h1532.html
Lecompton Constitution Debate- 1857 President Buchanan endorses the pro-slavery constitution (the Lecompton Constitution) of Kansas. Kansas is now a Free-soiler state by 10 to 1!!! Stephen Douglass, a Democrat, sees this as a gross violation of popular sovereignty, and gets Congress to authorize a new vote in Kansas. Kansas passes an anti-slavery constitution under the new vote. Douglass’ actions tear the Democratic party into two: Northern Dems and Southern Dems.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates - 1858 Stephen Douglass and Abe Lincoln run for same Senate seat for Illinois. Lincoln challenges Douglass to 7 open-air debates. KEY ISSUE: slavery in the territories Douglass = popular sovereignty should decide the issue (slavery will loose and whither away) Lincoln = slavery will not wither away, but must be stopped from spreading. Lincoln points out that popular sovereignty made irrelevant by Dred Scott v. Sanford. Douglass counters with Freeport Doctrine, suggests that states/people can “work around” or ignore the slave ruling (result?) (further fracture of the Dem Party)
John Brown and Harpers Ferry October 16, 1859 – John Brown and 18 men attempt to seize the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Their intent = start a slave rebellion in Virginia. They fail. Stopped by local militia and Col. Robert E. Lee’s US marines. Brown is tried for treason in a VA court and hung on Dec. 2, 1859. Brown becomes a martyr to Northern Abolitionists. South believes Northern abolitionists are trying to start slave rebellions. More talk of secession.
John Brown (1800-1859) was an abolitionist who took direct action to free slaves by force. Following his raid on the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, in mid-October 1859, he was convicted of treason, conspiracy, and murder. One of the most controversial abolitionists, Brown was regarded by some as a martyr and by others as a common assassin. … Ralph Waldo Emerson said that Brown's death would "make the gallows as glorious as the cross." This image shows a heroic Brown … as he walks to his execution on December 2, 1859. John Brown, The Martyr New York: Currier and Ives, 1870 http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afa m007.html#jbrown
Election of 1860 Republicans hold their national convention in 1860. Everyone expects Sen. Seward to be nominated. Seward, however, has made too many aggressive anti-slavery remarks. Lincoln-Douglas Debates introduce Lincoln to the nation, and he is nominated instead. Democrats are split into North and South, weakening the party. Know-nothings and others form the Constitutional Union Party, which takes away votes from the Dems Lincoln wins the election.
South Secedes Lincoln wins every Northern state and NOT ONE Southern state. Southerners feel they have lost their voice in the national government. To protect their states’ rights they secede. Dec. 20, 1860 South Carolina secedes, followed by Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Florida and Texas. These 7 form the Confederate States of America. –Jefferson Davis President Buchanan does NOTHING. The Nation waits: What will Lincoln do when he takes office?
WHY DID THE SOUTH SECEDE? CHRONOLOGICAL 1787 1861 MOST RESPONSIBLE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Northerners: A slave conspiracy in the Government? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9.
Lincoln’s Union (?) March 4, 1861 – Lincoln’s Inauguration, 7 states seceded: TX, LA, MISS, ALA, GA, FL, SC Lincoln’s inaugural address: “Physically speaking, we cannot separate.” Why?
http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/map_item.pl Charleston Harbor S.C.. Bombardment of Fort Sumter.
Ft. Sumter: Cause & Effects CAUSES: Geography: Fort was in mouth of harbor of Charleston, SC Time: Fort needed more provisions to hold on Compromise? Lincoln would provision garrison, but not reinforce it.
Fort Sumter Flag Note that there are 33 stars. Why is that important?
http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/map_item.pl Fort Sumter, South Carolina at the time of its capture February 18th, 1865. Showing the effects of the bombardment from Morris Island To accompany the report of Maj. Genl. Q. A. Gillmore, U.S. Vols., comdg. Dept. of the South.
Ft. Sumter: Cause & Effects EFFECTS: April 12, 1861: Confederates bombard Ft. Sumter, Federal garrison surrenders after 36 hours NORTH: unifies and settles in for a long fight, volunteers enlist, blockade begins SOUTH: Becomes aggressor, boosts overconfidence BORDER STATES: First shots fired by South, therefore, most stay with the Union
The War comes to “Mobtown” Baltimore was nation’s 2 nd largest city at the time Baltimore was infamous in the US for its unruly mobs and riots Gangs ruled the city: Plug-uglies, Red Necks, Gladiators, Black Snakes, Blood Tubs and Spartans… The Know Nothings had utilized violence during the election year of 1855. Only 9% of Maryland had voted for Lincoln or Douglas. Lincoln traveled incognito through Baltimore on the way to his inauguration due to rumors of an assassination plot.