1 The Cold War 1945-1990 US vs. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Democracy vs. Communism Capitalism vs. Command
2 US/USSR Relationship during WWII 1939: Stalin (USSR) makes a deal with Hitler (Germany). 1941: Hitler breaks deal and attacks USSR. Stalin changes sides and fights with US and other allies.
3 US/USSR Relationship during WWII Before the end of the World War II, Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt met at Yalta to plan what should happen when the war ended. They agreed on many points: 1.The establishment of the United Nations 2.Division of Germany into four zones 3.Free elections allowed in the states of Eastern Europe 4.Russia’s promise to join the war against Japan No agreement was reached on Poland. Winston Churchill (England), Franklin Roosevelt (US) and Joseph Stalin (USSR) meet in Yalta in 1945 to decide the fate of post-war Europe.
YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin
6 Cold War Characteristics Political, strategic and ideological struggle between the US and the USSR that spread throughout the world Struggle that contained everything short of war Competing social and economic ideologies
7 Post WWII/Cold War Goals for US Promote open markets for US goods to prevent another depression Promote democracy throughout the world, especially in Asia and Africa Stop the spread of communism –“Domino Effect”
8 Post WWII/Cold War Goals for USSR Create greater security for itself – lost tens of millions of people in WWII and Stalin’s purges – feared a strong Germany Establish defensible borders Encourage friendly governments on its borders Spread communism around the world “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.” Excerpt from Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain Speech.”
Truman Shock of having a new president. Truman much different from FDR. Compromise VP choice, only a middling Senator. FDR had left him largely out of the loop Truman bio and personality
10 Truman Doctrine 1947: British help Greek government fight communist guerrillas. –They appealed to America for aid, and the response was the Truman Doctrine. – America promised it would support free countries to help fight communism. – Greece received large amounts of arms and supplies and by 1949 had defeated the communists. The Truman Doctrine was significant because it showed that America, the most powerful democratic country, was prepared to resist the spread of communism throughout the world.
12 Marshall Plan In 1947, US Secretary of State Marshall announced the Marshall Plan. –This was a massive economic aid plan for Europe to help it recover from the damage caused by the war. There were two motives for this: – Helping Europe to recover economically would provide markets for American goods, so benefiting American industry. – A prosperous Europe would be better able to resist the spread of communism. This was probably the main motive. A poster promoting the Marshall Plan Secretary of State George Marshall.
Marshall Plan US fears spread of communism in Western Europe. Why? US responds with the Marshall Plan –US would provide substantial financial assistance. –Europeans enthusiastically agree. –Eastern Europe is offered aid, too, but Soviets force them to reject. Why? –Ends up being 35.3 Billion over 11 years. Huge Success.
Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.
Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
17 “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.” Excerpt from Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain Speech.” Containment Containment—the concept of limiting or containing communism to a specific region
18 The Berlin Crisis: June 1948-May 1949 1948: three western controlled zones of Germany united; grew in prosperity due to the Marshall Plan West wanted East to rejoin; Stalin feared it would hurt Soviet security. June 1948: Stalin decided to gain control of West Berlin, which was deep inside the Eastern Sector – Cuts road, rail and canal links with West Berlin, hoping to starve it into submission West responded by airlifting supplies to allow West Berlin to survive May 1949: USSR admitted defeat, lifted blockade Map of Germany divided into zones after WWII Map of Berlin divided into zones after WWII A plane flies in supplies during the Berlin Airlift.
Germany Divided Soviets exert strong political and economic control over their section of Germany. Soviets resist reunification of Germany. What is Soviet motivation and fear? American, British and French zones united to form West Germany. Soviet zone becomes East Germany
Berlin Blockade Soviets blockade Berlin in 1948 ending all rail and highway access to West Berlin. Why? First show-down between USSR and US. US airlift. Lasts for nearly a year. Airlift important symbol. Soviets forced to lift the blockade in 1949 1949 the two Governments of Germany are formally established.
Berlin Wall Berlin is Germany’s capital city. The Soviets built the wall to keep communists from escaping to the American sector.
27 NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization In 1949 the western nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to co- ordinate their defense against USSR. It originally consisted of: –America –Belgium –Britain –Canada –Denmark –France –Holland –Italy –Luxembourg –Norway –Portugal Since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991,some former Soviet republics have applied for membership to NATO. NATO flag
China Goes Red China was a mess. Weak and divided Nationalist led by Chang Ki Cheke (Jiang Jieshi). Communists are led by Mao Tse- tung. Chang is corrupt and repressive and ultimately Mao and communists take control. Nationalists flee to Formosa (Taiwan). US recognition of “China”.
“Who Lost China?” The “loss” of China was a huge blow to American Psyche. “Who lost China?” Many Republicans blame Truman. Allege that the State Department is riddled with secret Communists. Fuels the growing Red Scare. America now sees two largest countries aligned against the US. Myth of Communist unity.
Truman Limps into 1948 Truman popularity low. Reasons Economic readjustment after war Twangy and blunt Democrats in control for 16 years Republicans get majority in Congress in 1946 Most assume he can’t win. Democrats nominate him after Ike refuses to be drafted. Nomination splits the party Why are southern Democrats so opposed to him.
Dewey Wins! (or not) Truman wins handily and stuns about everyone. Democrats win House; keep it for the next 44 years. Why did Truman win?. Truman makes the Fair Deal the corner-stone of his second term. Congress guts most of it.
Ferreting Out Alleged Communists Red Scare hit US. Whiff of truth gives validity to paranoia. Many believed there were home-grown Soviet spies in the US government 1947 Truman launched loyalty program. 3000 federal employees dismissed based on suspicion of disloyalty or communist sympathies. “communist sympathizer”
Communist Witch Hunts 1938 House Un-American Activities Committee formed to investigate “subversion.” 1950 Joe McCarthy chairs committee and bursts on the national scene.
Joseph McCarthy A member of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) An endless parade of suspected “Communists” were called to testify before the committee, each was asked “Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?” If a witness refused to testify, they were called “Fifth Amendment Communists”, others simply guilty by association.
McCarthy’s favorite targets were writers, actors and producers McCarthy’s recognition of anticommunism as a political tool was not lost on other political figures- the Democratic Party’s association with liberal causes and reform politics made it vulnerable to being charged with being “soft on communism”. In 1946, the Republican Party proclaimed that Americans had the choice between communism and Republicanism.
Anticommunists claimed that there were not only “Reds” but “Pinks”, those who would slowly lead the country to communism. FDR and the New Deal were cast in the “Pinks” light and McCarthy said that “20 years of treason” had been committed. Conservatism and anti-Communist vigilance were the only protection against “creeping Socialism”
Despite all the hysteria, McCarthy never proved his conspiracy charges. Not a single conspirator was found. His support waned as his accusations proved to be empty. McCarthy finally reached too far when he attacked the U.S. Army for sheltering communists. McCarthy shouted to a general: “You are a disgrace to the uniform. You’re shielding communist conspirators…You’re not fit to be an officer. You’re ignorant”.
The End of McCarthy Finally after disgracing generals, congressmen and even President Eisenhower, the senate passed a vote of censure against McCarthy in 1954. He died of liver failure three years later.
Black Lists McCarren Internal Security Bill. What does it allow? Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Only two to be executed for spying during Cold War Witch-hunts are occurring in universities and in Hollywood. Black Lists
49 Warsaw Pact Warsaw Pact: organization of communist states in Central and Eastern Europe. Established May 14, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland USSR established in in response to NATO treaty Founding members: –Albania (left in 1961 as a result of the Sino-Soviet split) –Bulgaria –Czechoslovakia –Hungary –Poland –Romania – USSR –East Germany (1956) Greatest extent of Warsaw Pact
51 Arms Race Cold War tensions increased in the US when the USSR exploded its first atomic bomb in 1949. Cold War tensions increased in the USSR when the US exploded its first hydrogen bomb in 1952. It was 1000 times more powerful than the Hiroshima atomic bomb.
Bigger Bombs Feb. 1949 Soviets explode an Atomic bomb three years sooner than predicted. Americans shocked; monopoly gone America had counted on the bomb to keep Soviets in check for a few more years. Truman orders the development of the H-bomb. Beginning of the arms race.development of the H-bomb H-Bomb is exploded in 1952. Soviets explode their own H-bomb in 1953.
The race begins…. Both countries began developing their weapons so as to be able to ‘outgun’ their opponents. This meant: developing more powerful weapons having more of one weapon than the other side WHY NUCLEAR WEAPONS? Cheaper than having a large army Cheaper than having a large army They were a deterrent. The idea was to have so many missiles that they could not all be destroyed. If one side attacked then it knew that the other could retaliate. This was known as MAD – MUTUAL ASSURED DESTRUCTION. They were a deterrent. The idea was to have so many missiles that they could not all be destroyed. If one side attacked then it knew that the other could retaliate. This was known as MAD – MUTUAL ASSURED DESTRUCTION. For some the Arms Race was a test of the strengths of Capitalism v CommunismFor some the Arms Race was a test of the strengths of Capitalism v Communism
Why was there a nuclear arms race? 450 ICBMs 250 Medium range missiles 2,260 Bombers 16,000Tanks 32 Nuclear submarines 260 Conventional submarines 76 Battleships and carriers 76 IBMs 700 Medium range bombers 1,600 bombers 38,000 Tanks 12 Nuclear submarines 495 Conventional submarines 0 Battleships and cruisers
Dates of the nuclear arms race, 1945 - 1960 1945 – USA tests and drops the first atomic (A) bombs 1949 – USSR tests A bomb 1952 – USA tests its first hydrogen (H) bomb bomb 1953 – USSR tests its first H bomb 1957 – USSR 1. Tests ICBM capable of carrying an H bomb from USSR to USA 2. Puts the space satellite ‘Sputnik’ into orbit.
1958 – USA 1.Places IRBMs targeted on USSR in NATO countries. Both sides could now launch direct attacks on each others’ cities 2.Launches its own satellite 1960 – USA launches first nuclear powered submarine capable of firing a Polaris missile with an atomic warhead from underwater
Writing Prompt Compare and contrast the Cold War with a “Hot War”. Which is worse?
Competition Khrushchev keen to compete Khrushchev keen to compete Keen to show Communist technology to be superior Keen to show Communist technology to be superior Keen to increase Soviet prestige Keen to increase Soviet prestige Sputnik launched in 1957 Sputnik launched in 1957 USA failed to launch their satellite until 1958 USA failed to launch their satellite until 1958 Race would continue until 1980s Race would continue until 1980s
Laika orbited the earth over 2,000 times. She presumably died in space and her remains and Sputnik burned up upon re- entry into earth’s atmosphere.
The serious side was…. That a rocket that could launch a satellite could also launch a nuclear warhead at a target. That a rocket that could launch a satellite could also launch a nuclear warhead at a target. Space developments led to rapid advances in nuclear weapons. Space developments led to rapid advances in nuclear weapons. By 1960 each side had the nuclear capability to destroy the earth By 1960 each side had the nuclear capability to destroy the earth In 1961 Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet cosmonaut was the first man to orbit the earth – the Soviets had the lead. For Khrushchev it was a triumph for communism In 1961 Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet cosmonaut was the first man to orbit the earth – the Soviets had the lead. For Khrushchev it was a triumph for communism
Khrushchev said ‘The Sputniks prove that communism has won the competition between communist and capitalist countries. The economy, science, culture and the creative genius of people in all areas of life develop better and faster under communism.’
Writing Prompt How did Soviet advances in space (i.e. Sputnik, Yuri Gagarin, Laika) increase Cold War tensions? How did Soviet advances in space (i.e. Sputnik, Yuri Gagarin, Laika) increase Cold War tensions?
American Reactions to the Threat of Nuclear War Many feared the streams of radioactive particles produced by nuclear explosions. Exposure to these particles can cause burns, cancer, and birth defects. Electro Magnetic Pulse, EMPs Nuclear War After Pearl Harbor, Americans knew they could be attacked by a foreign enemy. After World War II, Americans knew that entire cities could be destroyed by nuclear weapons. Nuclear Fallout During the testing of an H-bomb, bad weather spread the nuclear fallout over a large area. Radiation killed one sailor and forced many to leave their homes permanently. Marshall Islands
U2 1960 1960 U2 was a spy plane U2 was a spy plane Able to fly 60,000ft at high altitudes Able to fly 60,000ft at high altitudes Could take photos of Soviet bomber bases and missile sites Could take photos of Soviet bomber bases and missile sites
U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
Events May 1 - U2 plane piloted by Gary Powers shot down by Soviet missile over Russia May 1 - U2 plane piloted by Gary Powers shot down by Soviet missile over Russia May 5 – Eisenhower denied it was spying May 5 – Eisenhower denied it was spying May 7 – Khrushchev says Powers to be charged with spying May 7 – Khrushchev says Powers to be charged with spying May 11 – Eisenhower admits U2 was on spying mission May 11 – Eisenhower admits U2 was on spying mission May 14 – Khrushchev demands apology and cancelling of all U2 flights May 14 – Khrushchev demands apology and cancelling of all U2 flights May 16 – U2 flights cancelled – no apology – Khrushchev walks out of Paris Summit May 16 – U2 flights cancelled – no apology – Khrushchev walks out of Paris Summit
Writing Prompt How did the U2 incident increase Cold War tensions? How did the U2 incident increase Cold War tensions?
Results Paris summit abandoned – hopes on disarmament dashed Paris summit abandoned – hopes on disarmament dashed Khrushchev showed Communist world he could be tough Khrushchev showed Communist world he could be tough Powers sentenced to ten years. Swapped for Soviet spy after 17 months Powers sentenced to ten years. Swapped for Soviet spy after 17 months Cold War attitudes hardened again Cold War attitudes hardened again
71 Eisenhower Doctrine The Eisenhower Doctrine was announced in a speech to Congress on January 5, 1957. It required Congress to yield its war-making power to the president so that the president could take immediate military action. It created a US commitment to defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country. The doctrine was made in response to the possibility of war, threatened as a result of the USSR’s attempt to use the Suez War as a pretext to enter Egypt. – The British and French withdrawals from their former colonies created a power vacuum that communists were trying to fill. President Eisenhower with his Secretary of State John Dulles
Eisenhower’s Cold War Policies John Foster Dulles – Sec. of State Dulles believed in brinkmanship, the diplomatic art of going to the brink of war without actually getting into war. To this end he advocated building more nuclear weapons. Dulles also believed in the concept of mutually assured destruction. This was the promise that the United States would use overwhelming force against the Soviet Union to settle conflicts. Foreign policy also had a secret side—the Central Intelligence Agency, or CIA. Left over from Truman is containment, the policy of limiting the spread of Communism around the world.
American Reactions to the Threat of Nuclear War Civil Defense The FCDA helped educate and prepare the public for nuclear emergencies. The FCDA issued booklets and films—for example, Duck and Cover. Air-raid sirens were installed. Operation Alert tested the readiness of urban areas. Nuclear Fears Many Americans built bomb shelters. Concern over nuclear fallout from testing led to the Limited Test-Ban Treaty. Nuclear fears affected American culture—movies had plots that centered on radiation fears and comics featured battles in a nuclear world. Military-Industrial Complex Eisenhower used his farewell address to inform Americans of this new danger. Prior to the 1950s, the United States did not have a permanent arms industry. He warned of the potential misuse of power by the arms industry. (e.g.“Iron Man”)