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US & USSR From Allies to Enemies. From “Iron Curtain” Speech to Truman Doctrine Winston Churchill & Fulton Speech March 1946 March 1946 Fulton, Missouri.

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Presentation on theme: "US & USSR From Allies to Enemies. From “Iron Curtain” Speech to Truman Doctrine Winston Churchill & Fulton Speech March 1946 March 1946 Fulton, Missouri."— Presentation transcript:

1 US & USSR From Allies to Enemies

2 From “Iron Curtain” Speech to Truman Doctrine Winston Churchill & Fulton Speech March 1946 March 1946 Fulton, Missouri Fulton, Missouri “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.” “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.” Churchill’s Messages USSR building an empire in Eastern Europe USSR building an empire in Eastern Europe US cannot sit idly and, worse still, return to isolationism US cannot sit idly and, worse still, return to isolationism US should stop entertaining the idea of post-war cooperation with the USSR US should stop entertaining the idea of post-war cooperation with the USSR

3 From “Iron Curtain” Speech to Truman Doctrine Truman Doctrine March 12, 1947 March 12, 1947 $400 million as eco & military aid to Greece & Turkey $400 million as eco & military aid to Greece & Turkey Help free people maintain institutions, nat’l integrity Help free people maintain institutions, nat’l integrity Official pronouncement of containment policy Official pronouncement of containment policy

4 From Allies to Enemies What went wrong? Why couldn’t West-USSR continue wartime collaboration in post-war years? Russian historical experience Russian historical experience Mongol invasion (13 th and 14 th centuries) Mongol invasion (13 th and 14 th centuries) Napoleon Bonaparte’s invasion (1812) Napoleon Bonaparte’s invasion (1812) British & French invasion of Crimea ( ) British & French invasion of Crimea ( ) Japan took Russian interest in Far East (1905) Japan took Russian interest in Far East (1905)

5 From Allies to Enemies Russian historical experience Russian historical experience Western hostility towards the Soviet Russia ( ) Western hostility towards the Soviet Russia ( ) A cordon sanitaire in eastern Europe to check spread of Soviet system A cordon sanitaire in eastern Europe to check spread of Soviet system British appeasement towards Hitler British appeasement towards Hitler The Munich agreement The Munich agreement Japanese attack in east Russia (1939) Japanese attack in east Russia (1939) German invasion (WWI & WWII) German invasion (WWI & WWII) Delay of second front in W Europe Delay of second front in W Europe US possession of nuclear bombs US possession of nuclear bombs Churchill’s Fulton speech Churchill’s Fulton speech

6 From Allies to Enemies Russian Geopolitical Concerns Russian Geopolitical Concerns Unprotected by natural barriers such as oceans or mountains Unprotected by natural barriers such as oceans or mountains Vulnerable to invasions from several directions Vulnerable to invasions from several directions Enormous territorial size makes int’l cohesion, communication & transportation difficult Enormous territorial size makes int’l cohesion, communication & transportation difficult Policy implications Policy implications Territorial expansion as a means of national defense Territorial expansion as a means of national defense Expand spheres of influence Expand spheres of influence Build pro-Soviet regimes Build pro-Soviet regimes

7 From Allies to Enemies Russian Security & State Russian Security & State Obsession with security & militarism Obsession with security & militarism Military for defense and expansion purposes Military for defense and expansion purposes Leninist Party-state & authoritarianism Leninist Party-state & authoritarianism Centralization of power Centralization of power Soviet Communist Party Soviet Communist Party Joseph Stalin Joseph Stalin Russian foreign policy & expansionism Russian foreign policy & expansionism Power top priority Power top priority Territorial security Territorial security Self-reliance Self-reliance Distrust of other countries Distrust of other countries

8 From Allies to Enemies Soviet Ideology Soviet Ideology Marxism Marxism Capitalism creates conditions for its demise Capitalism creates conditions for its demise Capitalism creates conditions for world socialist revolution Capitalism creates conditions for world socialist revolution Leninism Leninism Imperialism, last stage of capitalism Imperialism, last stage of capitalism Imperialism, source of world wars Imperialism, source of world wars Socialist revolution achievable in individual nations Socialist revolution achievable in individual nations Proletariat in full control of state power Proletariat in full control of state power

9 From Allies to Enemies Soviet Ideology Soviet Ideology Stalinism Stalinism Socialist society achievable in one country Socialist society achievable in one country Forceful nationalization & collectivization Forceful nationalization & collectivization Socialist success intensifies class struggles Socialist success intensifies class struggles Struggles btwn people & enemies of people Struggles btwn people & enemies of people Backwardness leads to defeat & humiliation Backwardness leads to defeat & humiliation Industrialization Industrialization Military buildup Military buildup The capitalist West threat to world peace The capitalist West threat to world peace

10 From Allies to Enemies Soviet Ideology Soviet Ideology Stalinism Stalinism Socialist society Socialist society

11 From Allies to Enemies Soviet Ideology Soviet Ideology Stalinism Stalinism Socialist society Socialist society

12 From Allies to Enemies Soviet Ideology Soviet Ideology Stalinism Stalinism Socialist society achievable in one country Socialist society achievable in one country Forceful nationalization & collectivization Forceful nationalization & collectivization Socialist success intensifies class struggles Socialist success intensifies class struggles Struggles btwn people & enemies of people Struggles btwn people & enemies of people Backwardness leads to defeat & humiliation Backwardness leads to defeat & humiliation Industrialization Industrialization Military buildup Military buildup The capitalist West threat to world peace The capitalist West threat to world peace

13 From Allies to Enemies Soviet Ideology Soviet Ideology Stalinism Stalinism Socialist society achievable in one country Socialist society achievable in one country Forceful nationalization & collectivization Forceful nationalization & collectivization Socialist success intensifies class struggles Socialist success intensifies class struggles Struggles btwn people & enemies of people Struggles btwn people & enemies of people Backwardness leads to defeat & humiliation Backwardness leads to defeat & humiliation Industrialization Industrialization Military buildup Military buildup The capitalist West threat to world peace The capitalist West threat to world peace

14 From Allies to Enemies Soviet Ideology Soviet Ideology Stalinism Stalinism Socialist society achievable in one country Socialist society achievable in one country Forceful nationalization & collectivization Forceful nationalization & collectivization Socialist success intensifies class struggles Socialist success intensifies class struggles Struggles btwn people & enemies of people Struggles btwn people & enemies of people Backwardness leads to defeat & humiliation Backwardness leads to defeat & humiliation Industrialization Industrialization Military buildup Military buildup The capitalist West threat to world peace The capitalist West threat to world peace


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