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UNIT TWO – HONORS WORLD HISTORY BYZANTINE, MONGOL, ISLAM, AFRICAN SOCIETIES.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT TWO – HONORS WORLD HISTORY BYZANTINE, MONGOL, ISLAM, AFRICAN SOCIETIES."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT TWO – HONORS WORLD HISTORY BYZANTINE, MONGOL, ISLAM, AFRICAN SOCIETIES

2 SSWH4 - THE STUDENT WILL ANALYZE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BYZANTINE AND MONGOL EMPIRES BETWEEN 450 CE AND 1500 CE. a. Analyze the importance of Justinian, include the influence of the Empress Theodora, Justinian’s Code, and Justinian’s efforts to recapture the west. b. Describe the relationship between the Roman and Byzantine Empires; include the impact Byzantium had on Moscow and the Russian Empire, the effect of Byzantine culture on Tsar Ivan III and Kiev, and the rise of Constantinople as a center for law, religion, and the arts. c. Explain the Great Schism of 1054 CE. d. Analyze the spread of the Mongol Empire; include the role of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan in developing the empire, the impact of the Mongols on Russia, China and the West, the development of trade, and European observations through the writings of Marco Polo. e. Explain the Ottoman Empire’s role in the decline of Byzantium and the capture of Constantinople in 1453 CE.

3 DAY ONE

4 FIRST TEN Listen to MLK Jr. Speech – 50 th Anniversary

5 HOOK Review Test Results Where can I improve? List two goals for Unit Two – List these in your “First Ten” area of your notebook.

6 HOOK Originally Christianity had one church. Because of political conflicts and differences in belief, the western and eastern parts of the Christian Church split in 1054 CE (Great Schism). Roman Catholic: Services are conduced in Latin, Pope has authority over bishops, pope claims authority over kings and emperors, priests cannot marry and divorce is not permitted. Eastern Orthodox: Services are conducted in Greek/local language, patriarch and other bishops head the church as a group, emperor claims authority over the patriarch and other bishops, Priests can marry, divorce is allowed under certain conditions. Gospel of Jesus and Bible Baptism Priests/ bishops Seek converts

7 WORK SESSION Time Period – 500 CE Byzantine Empire – 527 CE – Justinian 1240 CE Mongols Rise 1453 CE – Constantinople falls to Ottomans PPT Notes

8 CONSTANTINOPLE Constantinople became the sole capital of the empire and remained so until the successful revival of the western empire in the 8 th century by Charlemagne. The city is named after the emperor Constantine Constantine announced the end to all persecution of Christians

9 BYZANTINE EMPIRE

10 527 – Succeeded his uncle – New Emperors of Rome ABSOLUTE Power – Ran a theocracy – leader of the church and state “New Caesar” Known for his law code Constant struggle to gain control of the west and restore the former Roman Empire JUSTINIAN CE

11 BYZANTINE EMPIRE

12 Greek Language – Distinctive Culture Created a uniform law code from convoluted / contradictory laws of the Romans The Code – 5,000 Roman Laws The Digest: Opinions of legal thinkers about law The Institutes: textbook to law students The Novella – The New Laws passed after 534 Marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, women’s rights, and criminal justice Lasted 900 years! JUSTINIAN’S CODE

13 NEW RELIGION Religion as well as law served imperial centralization. In 380, Christianity had been proclaimed the official religion of the eastern empire. Now all other religions were considered “demented and insane.”

14 Book I, Of Persons VIII. Slaves 1. Slaves are in the power of masters, a power derived from the law of nations: for among all nations it may be remarked that masters have the power of life and death over their slaves, and that everything acquired by the slave is acquired for the master.

15 Book II, Of Things I. Division of Things 1. By the law of nature these things are common to mankind: the air, running water, the sea, and consequently the shores of the sea. No one, therefore, is forbidden to approach the seashore, provided that he respects habitats, monuments, and buildings which are not, like the sea, subject only to the law of nations. … 5. The public use of the seashore is part of the law of nations, as is that of the sea itself; and, therefore, any person is at liberty to place on it a cottage, to which he may retreat, or to dry his nets there, and haul them from the sea; for the shores may be said to be the property of no man. … 28. If the wheat of Titius is mixed with yours, when this takes place by mutual consent, the mixed heap belongs to you in common because … each grain, which before was the property of one or other of you, has by your mutual consent been made your common property; but, if the intermixture were accidental, or made by Titius without your consent, the mixed wheat does not then belong to you both in common… If either of you keep the whole quantity of mixed wheat, the other has a real actio [claim or suit] for the amount of wheat belonging to him, but it is in the province of the judge to estimate the quality of the wheat belonging to each.

16 Wife of Justinian Very powerful Dealt with foreign problems/disputes/treat ies Assisted with the legislative process Supported the construction of churches After her death Justinian passed no more laws EMPRESS THEODORA CE

17 Capital City Rebuilt city with walled fortifications Church Construction Hagia Sophia Holy Wisdom Preservation of Greco-Roman History Ottoman Turks sack the city in 1453 CONSTANTINOPLE

18 " Not since the world was made was there... so much wealth as was found in Constantinople. For the Greeks say that two-thirds of the wealth of this world is in Constantinople and the other third scattered throughout the world." --Robert of Clari, a French crusader who witnessed the pillage of the city in 1204, describing Constantinople.

19 THE GREAT SCHISM: : The pope and the patriarch excommunicated each other in a dispute over religious doctrine

20 LAST TEN Rome: Three Reasons the Roman Empire fell: First Christian Emperor in Constantinople: In 476 CE: Western Europe will see 500 years of dark ages Eastern Europe is now the _________________ Empire Byzantine: Byzantine was different from the Roman Empire because they utilized a ____________ language and was a solid ___________ state. ____________ was the significant leader of the Byzantine Empire Differences between Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics:

21 DAY TWO ENGINEERING AN EMPIRE & GREAT SCHISM

22 FIRST TEN Rome: Three Reasons the Roman Empire fell: First Christian Emperor in Constantinople: In 476 CE: Western Europe will see 500 years of dark ages Eastern Europe is now the _________________ Empire Byzantine: Byzantine was different from the Roman Empire because they utilized a ____________ language and was a solid ___________ state. ____________ was the significant leader of the Byzantine Empire Differences between Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics: CNN STUDENT NEWS

23 HOOK Originally Christianity had one church. Because of political conflicts and differences in belief, the western and eastern parts of the Christian Church split in 1054 CE (Great Schism). Roman Catholic: Services are conduced in Latin, Pope has authority over bishops, pope claims authority over kings and emperors, priests cannot marry and divorce is not permitted. Eastern Orthodox: Services are conducted in Greek/local language, patriarch and other bishops head the church as a group, emperor claims authority over the patriarch and other bishops, Priests can marry, divorce is allowed under certain conditions. Gospel of Jesus and Bible Baptism Priests/ bishops Seek converts

24 WORK SESSION Engineering an Empire Discussion

25 LAST TEN HOT SEAT

26 DAY THREE MONGOLS

27 FIRST TEN Drop your card in the basket on the front chair (Index Card with organization on it you are interested in researching) Based on the map below describe the territories the Mongols invaded. For example, if you had to tell a person where the Mongol Empire was WITHOUT the use of a map – visual, how would you describe it? Where did they NOT invade?

28 HOOK Fierce group of horsemen from Central Asia made their way into Russia around mid-1200’s Genghis Khan was their leader: one of the most feared leaders of all time. Known for their savage killing and burning  BRUTAL Destroyed Kiev (1240) “no remaining eye to weep” Ruled Southern Russia for 200 years

29 WORK SESSION Quiz Crash Course – The Mongols PPT Slides Start video if time

30 MONGOL INFLUENCES IN THE WEST Nomadic people from central Asia  great horseman  Lead by Genghis Khan- one of the most feared warriors of all time  He launched a campaign of terror across central Asia The Mongols destroyed one city after another By 1225, Central Asia was under Mongol control

31 GENGHIS KHAN Three things that made him such a great conqueror: 1.He was a brilliant organizer. He assembled his Mongol warriors into a mighty force, following the model of the Chinese military. 2.He was a gifted strategist. He used various tricks to confuse his enemy. 3.Used cruelty as a weapon. He believed in terrifying his enemies into surrender. Genghis Khan dies in 1227 from illness. His successors continue to expand his empire

32 PAX MONGOLICA From the mid 1200’s-1300’s, the Mongols imposed stability and law and order across much of Eurasia. This period is referred to as Mongol Peace The Mongols guaranteed safe passage for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries from one end of the empire to the other.

33 MONGOL INFLUENCES IN CHINA Mongol ruler, Kublai Khan, unites China But he is warned, “I have heard that one can conquer the empire on horseback, but one cannot govern it on horseback” The Mongol rulers had little in common with their Chinese subjects. Because of their differences, the Mongols kept their separate identity. They lived apart from the Chinese and obeyed different laws. They kept the Chinese out of high government offices

34 TRADE UNDER MONGOL RULE Foreign trade increased under Kublai Khan Trade between Europe and Asia had never been more active. Ideas and inventions traveled along with the trade goods. Many Chinese innovations, such as gunpowder, reached Europe during this period. He also encouraged trade by inviting foreign merchants to visit China. – Marco Polo!

35 INFLUENCES IN RUSSIA Looted and burned Kiev Mongol rule cut off Russian contacts with Western Europe which were making advances in art and science Tatars – Mongols who conquered Russian cities during the 13 th c.; left Russian church and aristocracy intact While ferocious in war, the Mongols were quite tolerant in peace. They rarely imposed their beliefs on those they conquered

36 MOSCOW TAKES LEAD With their location near trading rivers, Moscow steadily increased their power Head of Russian Orthodox church made Moscow capital, became political and spiritual center

37 IVAN THE GREAT ---- IVAN III Recovered Russian territories that were lost to invaders Russia becomes an empire under Ivan III Tried to limit the power of boyars (landowning nobles) Took on the title of Czar (Russian for Caesar) Russia= “Third Rome”

38 LAST TEN How did the Mongols influence Russia? How were the Russian’s Influenced by the Byzantines? What lead Moscow to grow as a city? Who was the leader of the Mongols?

39 DAY FOUR MONGOLS - CONTINUED

40 FIRST TEN GET READY! Quiz #2 will be on Friday over the Mongols and the Byzantine Empire (also the Great Schism) – HINT – I WOULD STUDY! Also, we are starting a project in class today and you will work on it tomorrow in class with the sub. It is due when you walk in the door on Friday and then we will quiz. Get out handout from yesterday with video question – we are watching the video the first 45 minutes of class and then we will start the project.

41 WORK SESSION Barbarians: Mongols – History Channel with questions Start Project

42 LAST TEN Develop one quiz question about the Mongols and one quiz question about the Byzantine Empire or Great Schism and write it on your index card. It can be a short answer, fill in the blank, multiple choice, or true/false. You pick!

43 DAY FIVE FINISH MONGOLS – START ISLAM

44 FIRST TEN Turn in project to basket – be sure name is on it. Study for Quiz – Taking it in 5!

45 WORK SESSION Quiz Islam PPT Discussion

46 ISLAM

47 VOCABULARY Allah Muhammad Islam Muslim Hijrah Ummah Sunna Shari’a

48 BASICS Islam is the RELIGION and Muslims are the PEOPLE Only 1/5 of Muslims are Arabs QURAN (or KORAN): Muslim holy book Muslims are monotheistic and worship the same one God as Christians and Jews. Allah, Yahweh, God MOSQUE: a Islamic place of worship 5 Pillars:

49 7http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/arthistory/ah369/islam_map.jpg

50 IN MECCA DURING THE PILGRIMAGE m_es

51 MOSQUE IN MEDINA, SAUDI ARABIA

52 MOHAMMED ALI MOSQUE, CAIRO, EGYPT

53 BLUE MOSQUE (SULTAN AHMET MOSQUE), ISTANBUL TURKEY 34

54 INTERIOR OF THE BLUE MOSQUE

55 DOME OF A MOSQUE, ESFAHAN, IRAN 36

56 MOSQUE IN DJENNE, MALI (WEST AFRICA)

57 NORTH AFRICAN MOSQUE tunis.htm 39

58 INDONESIAN MOSQUE

59 MOSQUE IN TEMPE, ARIZONA

60 RELATIONS? Acknowledges Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Jesus, John the Baptist, and others as the “the good prophets of God” A special place for Jesus and Mary Accepts that Mary’s conception is from God’s soul. Rejects the divinity of Jesus (no trinity). When conquering territories People of the book did not have to covert and could hold high ranks in the world of Islam.

61 571Muhammad born in Mecca. 610 First revelation in the Harraa cave (27 Ramadan). 613Muhammad starts to preach; Arabs fear monotheism 622 “Hijrah” or Escape. Muhammad and followers escape prosecution and go to Almadinah (Yathrib).  MEDINA TIMELINE OF EVENTS

62 629 Muhammad conquers Mecca peacefully (NO REVENGE)  destroys idols in Ka’aba.  brings peace to war-torn Arabia  Ummah “Community” 632 Muhammad dies in Medina. Unmarked grave (his will)

63 Islam by the death of Mohammed 632

64 MUHAMMAD’S SUCCESSORS SPREAD ISLAM What do we do next?  No named successor Election: Abu Bakr  First Caliph “successor” Three more: Umar, Uthman, and Ali Things start to go wrong = jihad Expansion occurs after Bakr is dead By 750 (page 261) 6,000 miles  Muslim success: weak surroundings and persecuted victims, tax Tolerance for people of the book

65 732, 100 Yrs after Mohammed

66

67 SPLIT Sunni- Believed the community should select Muhammad's successor.  90% of Muslims Shi’a- Believed a family member, Ali, who was married to Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah should be the first caliph: spiritual head of Islam.  Today Shi’a is mainly in Iran (90%), Iraq (55%) and Lebanon (~40%)

68 Sea  Med. Sea  Indian Ocean Land  Silk Roads Arabic & Dinar  Sakk = check (banks)

69 CONTROL Umayyads rule = Shi’a Abbasids overthrew Umayyads –  Create new capital: Baghdad – trade routes  Organized bureaucracy  Could not control entire territory “Independent Muslim states sprang up, and local leaders dominated many smaller regions.”  Fatimid (Shi’a, from Muhammad’s daughter Fatima)

70 THINKERS Ibn Sina (980 AD)- Wrote medieval texts like- The Book of Healing & The Canon of Medicine- became standard medical texts for Europe. Ibn Battuta (1304) – Traveler and scholar. Traveled a much larger area than Marco Polo.

71 REVIEW 1.List the 5 pillars 2.Who was the first Caliph? 3.Who was Ali? 4.Who were the Abbasids? 5.Why did Muslims split between Sunni and Shi’a? 6.What were the results of the Muslim Empire growing so large?

72 LAST TEN HW Assignment – Trans-Saharan Trade Guided Reading with Questions – Classwork Grade


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