Presentation on theme: "Byzantium: The Eastern Roman Empire. Location of Constantinople Easily fortified site on a peninsula bordering a natural harbor Protection of the eastern."— Presentation transcript:
Byzantine Emperor Justinian As the first to codify Roman law, Justinian provided the basis for the law codes of Western Europe. These laws became known as Justinian’s Code.
Justinian Law Code In A.D. 528 the Emperor Justinian began a review of the old Roman laws. There were thousands of Roman laws that ordered life in the empire. The emperor chose ten men to review 1,600 books full of Roman Law and create a simpler legal code. These men were able to create the Justinian Code with just over 4,000 laws.
Book I, Of Persons VIII. Slaves 1. Slaves are in the power of masters, a power derived from the law of nations: for among all nations it may be remarked that masters have the power of life and death over their slaves, and that everything acquired by the slave is acquired for the master.
Book II, Of Things I. Division of Things 28. If the wheat of Titius is mixed with yours, when this takes place by mutual consent, the mixed heap belongs to you in common because each body, that is, each grain, which before was the property of one or other of you, has by your mutual consent been made your common property; but, if the intermixture were accidental, or made by Titius without your consent, the mixed wheat does not then belong to you both in common...if either of you keep the whole quantity of mixed wheat, the other has a claim for the amount of wheat belonging to him, but it is in the province of the judge to estimate the quality of the wheat belonging to each.
Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire reached its height in culture and prosperity. – Reconquest of former Roman territories – Expansion of trade – Hagia Sophia
The Byzantine Empire During the Reign of Justinian
Brainteaser#32: 11-5-13 1.Name one role that Constantinople had? 2.Name one important thing that Justinian did to improve the empire? 3.What is the definition of a Mercator map? 4.Name the three types of Greek Architecture? 5.Who are the Patricians of Rome?
1. Seat of the Byzantine Empire until Ottoman conquest Preserved classical Greco-Roman culture Center of trade 2. Codification of Roman law (impact on European legal codes) Reconquest of former Roman territories Expansion of trade 3. Rectangular.-Accurately shows areas around the Equator.- Heavily distorts the polar areas. 4. Doric, Ionic and Corinthian 5. The wealthiest citizens of Rome
Byzantine achievements in art and architecture Inspiration provided by Christian religion and imperial power Icons- religious images valued for their sacred powers
Greek Orthodox Christianity and imperial patronage enabled the Byzantine Empire to develop a unique style of art and architecture. Greek and Roman traditions were preserved in the Byzantine Empire.
Hagia Sophia A Byzantine domed church Church of Holy Wisdom
Byzantine culture Continued flourishing of Greco- Roman traditions Greek language (as contrasted with Latin in the West) Greek Orthodox Christianity Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries – Illuminated Manuscripts-decorated books
The cultural and political differences between the eastern and western Roman Empire weakened the unity of the Christian Church and led to its division. Great Schism- division within the Christian Church in 1054.
Eastern Church Eastern Orthodox Christianity Centered in Constantinople Close to seat of power after Constantinople became capital Use of Greek language in the liturgy
Western Church Roman Catholic Church Centered in Rome Farther from seat of power after Constantinople became capital Use of Latin language in the liturgy
Division between Western and Eastern Churches Controversy over: Authority of the Pope eventually accepted in the West Authority of the Patriarch accepted in the East Practices such as celibacy eventually accepted in the West
Christian Church Clergy- Church officials Laity- Church members who are not officials Monasteries- religious communities Missionaries- people who carry a religious message
Division between Western and Eastern Churches – Iconoclasts- image breakers – Patriarch refused to give military protection to the Pope – Crowned Charlemagne emperor
FallFall of the Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs conquered many Byzantine lands. Crusaders looted Constantinople. In 1453 the Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople.
Influence of Byzantine culture on Eastern Europe and Russia Byzantine civilization influenced Russian and Eastern European civilizations through its religion, culture, and trade. Trade routes between Black Sea and Baltic Sea Adoption of Orthodox Christianity by Russia and much of Eastern Europe
Kievan Rus Kiev – Capital of Kievan Rus – Located along the Dnieper River which allowed trade with Constantinople. Prince Vladimir- sent officials to observe the major religions 988 Vladimir converted to Eastern Orthodoxy and made it the state religion.
Kievan Rus Prince Yaroslav – Ruler during the Golden Age – Established the Pravda Russkaya- law code based on Justinian's Code. 1240 Mongol invaders captured Kiev. – They required taxes, but allowed conquered peoples to keep their cultures.
Moscow Rus 1480 Ivan III freed the Rus from Mongol rule and created the Russian Empire. After the fall of Constantinople, Moscow became the center of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the “Third Rome.” Ivan III took the title czar (tsar), or caesar.
Adoption of Greek alphabet to the Slavic languages by St. Cyril (Cyrillic alphabet)