Presentation on theme: "Expansion Of The Reformation. Holy Roman Empire My Religion is the Only Right Religion People of the 16th century could not comprehend the concept of."— Presentation transcript:
My Religion is the Only Right Religion People of the 16th century could not comprehend the concept of religious toleration or the existence of numerous religions within the same country. The ruler determined the religion of the region would be. Any other religious beliefs were seen as a political threat to the security of the nation.
Lutheranism and the German States 1520 Luther ' s Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation encouraged German patriotism and resistance to Roman control. German princes supported Luther not only out of religious faith but also because it enabled them to confiscate wealthy church holdings.
Lutheranism and the German States 1. A series of 5 wars between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and France occurred 1521-1555 and are called the Hapsburg-Valois Wars. 2. These ended in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg which said that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler; the only choices were Lutheranism or Catholicism; Calvinism or any others were banned.
Lutheranism in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark The monarchs in each state established Lutheranism as the state religion.
Anabaptists members of a variety of 16th- century religious groups that rejected infant baptism. Since they believed that only after an adult had come to faith in Christ should he or she be baptized, they taught that converts who had been baptized in infancy must be re-baptized. The first adult baptism was performed on Jan. 21, 1525 in Zurich Thomas Muntzer
Anabaptists 1. The Anabaptists refused to take oaths, opposed capital punishment, and rejected military service and public office. They believed in separation of Church and State, religious tolerance, women as ministers. They also claimed direct inspiration by the Holy spirit. 2. Their beliefs made them appear subversive and provoked persecution. 3. Anabaptists numbered less than 1 percent of the population. Modern followers included the Mennonites, the Hutterian Brethren, and the Amish.
The English Reformation – Henry VIII Great supporter of the Catholic Church. He wrote a pamphlet that showed his allegiance and castigated Luther, calling him "a limb of the devil". For these the pope gave him the title Defender of the Faith.
The English Reformation – Henry VIII The Quest for a Son and Heir: Marriage story. Act of Succession: Edward, Mary, Elizabeth. Pope Clement VII refused to annul Henry's marriage to Catherine for two reasons. First, to overturn a dispensation granted by Pope Julius II would admit that a pope could be wrong. In light of the ongoing problems with Luther, Clement VII could not do that.
The English Reformation – Henry VIII Second, in 1527 Rome was captured and sacked by Emperor Charles V, Queen Catherine's nephew. The pope in Rome was loath to risk the wrath of the conqueror of Rome. In 1533 Thomas Cramner was named archbishop of Canterbury and immediately pronounced Henry's marriage to Catherine annulled and his marriage to Anne legal.
The English Reformation – Henry VIII Act of Supremacy: passed by Parliament in 1534, it declared the king to be the head of the Church of England (Anglican Church) English monasteries were closed and their property seized by the state and distributed to supporters under Chief Minister Thomas Cromwell, 1535- 1539. Basic Catholic rituals and doctrines were retained during Henry VIII's reign. Cramner opposed Henry VIII"s Six Articles. in 1539, in which the King reasserted such catholic doctrines as transubstantiation in to Eucharist and the enforced celibacy of the clergy.
The English Reformation – Henry VIII Sir Thomas More: would not meet the requirement to agree to the Act of Supremacy and was beheaded as was John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester.
The English Reformation – King Edward VI Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cramner promoted the Book of Common Prayer (1549). When Edward died in 1553, Cramner supported the succession on the protestant Lady Jane Grey. However, the throne passed to the Roman Catholic Mary I, who sent Cramner to the Tower of London for treason and heresy. He recanted, but whole being burned at the stake he held his right hand in the fire first for having signed the recantations.
The English Reformation – Mary I return of Catholicism; marriage to Philip of Spain; persecutions of Protestants; Bloody Mary
The English Reformation – Elizabeth I beginning of religious stability; growth of Puritanism Elizabethan Settlement - outward conformity to the Church of England and uniformity in all ceremonies. Everyone had to attend Church of England services or be fined; 1563 Thirty-Nine Articles.
Irish Reformation In1536 the Irish Parliament approved English reformation laws; Church of Ireland established; most Irish people remained Roman Catholic.
The French Reformation – John Calvin studied in Paris ( 1521-1525 ) and was imbued with humanist philosophy. He then studied law at his father's bidding (1525-1530). Dad died 1531 had Calvin returned to the study of the classics and theology. Sometime between 1526 and 1531 he had a conversion experience. He wrote numerous commentaries on books of the Bible. His reformist ideas were suspect and he was forced to flee, in 1535, to Basel, Switzerland.
The French Reformation – John Calvin Institutes of the Christian Religion ( 1536): In Basel he produced a small book about his new reformed beliefs. It was designed to offer a brief summary of essential Christian belief and to defend French Protestants, who were then undergoing serious persecution. This first edition contained only six brief sections. By the last edition ( 1559), it had grown to 79 full chapters.
The French Reformation – John Calvin Basic Beliefs 1. God is omnipotent and has absolute sovereignty. 2. Men and women are totally weak and sinful by nature 3. The Holy Spirit impart the free gift of faith 4. By God's grace a few people will be saved - they are called the Elect 5. Predestination 6. The duty of the Elect is to rule society so as to glorify God - the Church should dominate the State - Theocracy 7. The Bible is the final authority
The French Reformation – John Calvin City of Saints: In July 1536, Calvin was convinced to stay in Geneva, Switzerland and reform the city and the church. In 1538, Calvin was expelled from the city. 1. Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg where he spent the most enjoyable years of his life as pastor of the city's French congregation. When friends of Calvin gained control of the Geneva council in 1541, they asked him to return, and he reluctantly agreed.
The French Reformation – John Calvin 2. During the next 14 years his reforms met stiff resistant. Some Genevans then, and,many critics later, considered Calvin' s morality absurdly severe, with its banning of plays and its attempt to introduce religious pamphlets and psalm singing into Geneva's taverns. By 1555 the city belonged to Calvin. 3. During Calvin' s last years, Geneva was home to many religious refugees who carried away the desire to implement a Genevan reform in their own countries
The French Reformation – John Calvin Influence: His influence, which spread throughout the Western world, was felt especially in France, where his followers were called Huguenots, and in Scotland through the work of John Knox
Calvin’s “Blue Laws” for Inns If any one blasphemes the name of God or says, “By the body, ‘sblood, zounds,” or anything like, or who gives himself to the devil or uses similar execrable imprecation, he shall be punished. If any one insults any one else the host shall deliver him up to justice. The host shall be obliged to report to the government any insolent or dissolute acts committed by the guests.
Calvin’s “Blue Laws” for Inns The host shall be obliged to keep in a public place a French Bible, in which any one who wishes may read. (He) shall not allow any dissoluteness like dancing, dice or cards, nor receive any one suspected of being a debauche. He shall not allow indecent songs. Nobody shall be allowed to sit up after nine o’clock at night except informers.
The Scottish Reformation John Knox ( 1514-1572 ): After serving briefly as a Roman Catholic priest, he became a Protestant through the efforts of the Scottish reformer George Wishart. After Wishart was burned at the stake at St. Andrews in 1546 Knox joined other rebellious Protestants barricaded in St. Andrews castle. There he was urged to preach. His zeal and obvious ability made him an immediate leader of the Protestant cause. When the castle of St. Andrews fell to Scottish and French Roman Catholics in July 1547, Knox was sentence to serve on French galleys.
The Scottish Reformation After 19 months his release was secured by English Protestant influence. Knox then lived for four years in England, serving as a parish preacher in Berwick and Newcastle and becoming (1551) a chaplain to King Edward VI. His objections to the Second Book of Common Prayer in 1552 paved the way for the later Puritan movement in England.
The Scottish Reformation Beyond Calvin: Knox became a follower of Calvin's in 1553 but advanced beyond his mentor in political theory. In 1554: Knox had begun to justify resistance to faithless rulers do attack their dutiful subjects. While in Geneva, Knox published a notorious work, The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women ( 1558), in which he scathingly denounced rule by women monarchs.
Mary, Queen of Scots Mary of Guise Mary I of England It was directed at the queen regent of Scotland, Mary of Guise, Mary, Queen of Scots (then also queen of France), and England's Mary I - all Catholic monarchs
The Scottish Reformation Return to Scotland: May 1559 at the height of conflict between Catholics and Protestants. His inspirational preaching and timely aid from England allowed Protestant forces to triumph. The return of the widowed Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1561 led to a famous series of face-to-face confrontations between the young queen and Scotland foremost preacher. When Mary was forced to abdicate in 1567, Protestantism was secure in Scotland as the Scottish parliament ends papal authority, abolishes the mass, attendance at mass punishable by a death; Book of Common Order 1564
The Scottish Reformation Presbyterianism: 1. Calvinism; 2. each community church was governed by a small group of elders or presbyters
The Swiss Reformation Ulrich Zwingli ( 1484-1531) : rejected clerical celibacy, the worship of saints, fasting, transubstantiation, and purgatory. I He ordered churches to be stripped of all decoration,
Zurich: In 1523 the governing council accepted his beliefs and the city became a center for Protestantism Theocracy: Zwingli believed in a union of Church and state. The law required church attendance: regulated personal behavior, employed ''snitches" to inform on wayward citizens. The Swiss Reformation
Differences: Zwingli and Luther differed over the Eucharist. Luther supported the concept of the Real Presence while Zwingli supported the notion of the Eucharist as a remembrance. They met at Marburg Castle in 1529 to end their differences but they could not agree. E. Swiss Cantons: these political divisions of Switzerland were divided between Protestant and Roman Catholics beliefs. During the resulting civil wars Zwingli was captured and executed. The treaty ending the civil wars said each canton should determine its own religion.