Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

 1. As a result of the 1800 presidential election results, A. A constitutional amendment set up separate electoral votes for president and vice-president.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: " 1. As a result of the 1800 presidential election results, A. A constitutional amendment set up separate electoral votes for president and vice-president."— Presentation transcript:

1  1. As a result of the 1800 presidential election results, A. A constitutional amendment set up separate electoral votes for president and vice-president. B. Hamilton's economic program was dismantled. C. John Adams joined the Republican Party. D. The Federalist Party gained power.  2. In the video, Professor Joseph Ellis observes that the creation of political parties allows A. the elite to control elections. B. political dissent to coexist without violence. C. minority groups to gain political leverage. D. incumbent politicians to maintain their offices.

2 George Washington President of the Constitutional Convention; First President of the United States,

3 Hamiltonian Economics: The National Debt  Alexander Hamilton  Secretary of Treasury  Report on Public Credit (1790)  Foreign debt paid promptly and fully $11 m  Domestic debt— $24 m x 2 government issue securities to debt holders that pay 4% intere st

4 Hamiltonian Economics: The Bank and the Excise Tax  Bank of the United States  Handle government revenue and disbursements  Privately owned and controlled 1/5 – 4/5  Taxes  Excise taxes: alcohol, tea, coffee, etc  Whiskey tax to set precedent of federal government imposing and collecting internal tax

5 “City of Magnificent Distances”  The Rise of Opposition  Madison led congressional opposition to Hamilton’s proposals  Jefferson joins Madison’s opposition  Compromise reached:  In exchange for accepting Hamilton’s proposals on debt  permanent capital of the United States would be located on the Potomac River

6 Americans and the French Revolution  Americans sympathetic to French Revolution  Jeffersonian Republicanism  Grateful for French help in American revolution  Washington declares American neutrality  U.S. commerce and financial health depended on good relations with Great Britain  Jefferson and Madison lead French sympathizers

7 Citizen Genêt  Edmond Charles Genêt  Ignored neutrality of the U.S.  British Orders in Council  Engaged in overt and covert acts of war

8 Western Troubles  Shawnee attack frontier settlers  “Mad” Anthony Wayne and the Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794)  Whiskey Rebellion  George Washington orders militia troops against Whiskey Rebellion

9 The Jay Treaty  Jay’s Treaty  British agree to abandon forts on U.S. soil  U.S. grants Britain Most-Favored-Nation trading status  Nothing said of impressment or other British violations  New England and port cities for it  South opposed  Pinckney Treaty  Thomas Pinckney  Favorable Florida border  Americans can use Mississippi River and port of New Orleans

10 Washington’s Farewell Set 2-term limit Secured U.S. control of West Farewell address warnings “entangling alliances” “factions” Democratic Republicans

11 The Election of 1796  John Adams, Federalist candidate  Thomas Jefferson, Democratic Republican candidate  John Adams won Presidency  Thomas Jefferson won Vice-Presidency

12 Troubles with France,  France breaks off relations because of Jay’s Treaty  XYZ Affair  France vs. U.S. in the Caribbean

13 The Crisis at Home,  Federal property tax  Alien and Sedition Acts  Alien  Extend naturalization  Detain  Deport  Sedition  William Duane of the Philadelphia Aurora  Matthew Lyon republican congressman  Both Jailed  Virginia and Kentucky Resolves

14 The Politicians and the Army  Federalists implemented request that Congress create standing army  Damages Federalist position  Many believe Federalist using war with France to impose their rule and destroy opposition  Alien and Sedition Acts  Federalist military buildup

15 Video Question Time!

16  1. As a result of the 1800 presidential election results, A. A constitutional amendment set up separate electoral votes for president and vice-president. B. Hamilton's economic program was dismantled. C. John Adams joined the Republican Party. D. The Federalist Party gained power.  2. In the video, Professor Joseph Ellis observes that the creation of political parties allows A. the elite to control elections. B. political dissent to coexist without violence. C. minority groups to gain political leverage. D. incumbent politicians to maintain their offices.

17

18

19 The Jeffersonians in Power: The Republican Program  Plea for unity, “we are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”  Jefferson’s “wise and frugal government”  Simplified social tone of administration  Reduced size and expense of government  Substantial cuts in military

20 Louisiana  Purchase of Louisiana Territory from France, 1803  New Orleans  Dilemma for Jefferson:  no constitutional power to buy the territory, but offer could not be refused  Jefferson easily reelected in 1804

21 Lewis & Clark Explore newly acquired land May 1804 Began St Louis along Missouri River Wintered in Mandan Village Toussaint Charbonneau Sacajawea November 1805 reached Pacific

22

23 Continuation of Shays Rebellion

24 Cosmopolitans versus Localists  Cosmopolitans  Urban classes, large scale farmers and planters, Continental Army officers  Aggressive trade policy, hard money,  Localists  Rural classes  Paper money and debt relief

25  Localists win most local debates  but speculators thrive  Cosmopolitans began to look beyond local to national stage  A national stage with problems. Congress – difficulties  Financial  Annual income $400,000  Interest on debts $2.4 million  Foreign relations  Lack of protection for trade  Barbary Pirates

26  Jay-Gardoqui Treaty  John Jay  Access to Spanish colonies in exchange for closing Mississippi to US shipping  North for  South Against  Washington – Potomac River  Annapolis's meeting  Plan for Philadelphia

27 Constitutional Convention Constitutional Convention meets in Philadelphia May 1787 In attendance are delegates from all states, except Rhode Island 74 Delegates Only 3 attended Stamp Act Congress 8 signed declaration ½ continental congress 22 served in continental army Many unknown

28  Shift of the guard of America  Personified by Hamilton

29 Key issues at convention  Question of power  Congress needs power to  Tax in states  Regulate trade  Issue money  Maintain national armed forces

30 Key issues at convention II  Ensuring liberty rather than tyranny through checks and balances (Separation of Powers)  Meant to ensure cooperation - often leads to gridlock  Virginia and New Jersey Plan  Compromise  New Congress to have two chambers  different electoral methods

31 Key issues at convention III  Strong executive  Question of representation of southern states  3/5 clause  protection of slave trade until 1808  Establishment of Supreme Court  power to strike down federal and state laws

32 THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 1787

33 Passing the Constitution  Needed to be ratified by 9 of the 13 states  Heated debate over ratification  Competing sides known as  Federalists and Anti - federalists

34  ‘Federalists’ supported the Constitution as it stood  Principal figure James Madison  No problem with a powerful central government  constitution had sufficient checks and balances to prevent abuses.

35  ‘ Anti-federalists’  Principal figures Sam Adams & Patrick Henry  More powerful States  strong federal government was dangerous.  Stressed need for rights to be built into constitution

36  Votes close in several states  constitution ratified when New Hampshire voted for acceptance in June 1788

37 Bill of Rights  Constitution silent on issues of rights  ammunition to Anti-Federalists  Several states ratified on understanding that bill of rights would be passed amending the constitution

38 Bill of Rights, passed 25 th Sept 1789, ratified 15 th Dec 1791 II  Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion,  or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech,  or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble,  and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.  II  A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. XX  The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution,  nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively,  or to the people.

39 George Washington President of the Constitutional Convention; First President of the United States,

40 Bank of the United States  Vital to have stable and reliable currency.  Pound remains in circulation for many years while new currency gets established.  Bank of the United States chartered 1791  established paper money, and controlled the minting of coins.  New currency termed the dollar  slang term in use throughout colonies for Pieces of Eight (widely circulated)  Dollar Sign ($) comes from union of P and S (abbreviation for Peso)

41 Jeffersonian Republicanism  Jefferson believed in wider political participation  especially among middle classes  Women to have greater role  virtuous republic - ideologies of republican motherhood  greater stress on public education, and charitable activity with a reforming purpose.  Emphasis on small government, and personal responsibility.

42 New Territory  New USA is significantly larger than boundaries of former colonies  Creates two problems  1: what to do with new territories in terms of white settlement.  Solution: all unorganized territory belongs to Federal Government.  First new trans-appalachian states  Kentucky (1792) and Tennessee (1796)

43 Second problem is what to do about Indians

44 Indian Problem Treaty of Paris gave USA control over most lands east of Mississippi River Problem: lands really under control of some powerful Indian tribes Treaties signed at Fort Stanwix NY (1784) and Hopewell SC (1786) between federal government and Indian representatives, problem – were the Indian signatories really representative? Resistance to these treaties met with military force of the US army

45  Northwest Ordinances (1784-7) organizes much of the old Northwest  Ohio Company set out to settle this territory  led to war with Miami, Shawnee and Delaware tribes  Major defeats inflicted against US army 1791  US victory at Fallen Timbers 1794 was decisive  Treaty of Greenville (1795) sets trend that USA has to treat with Indians for land.  Louisiana Purchase doubles size of USA, brings many more tribes under white rule  New space - new approach

46 America’s relationship with France  Ally in Revolutionary War vs Great Britain  Outbreak of French Revolution 1789 initially welcomed in USA  concerns due to terror and violence  not virtuous republicanism like in USA

47  France tries to get US to honour 1778 alliance and join war vs Great Britain  US refuses  economic links with GB too important  By 1798 French seizing US ships – undeclared war at sea.

48 America’s Relationship with Great Britain  Close cultural, linguistic and economic ties  biggest trading partner  Britain sees itself as superior & more powerful than USA  still smarting over Revolution.  Problems over European trade and impressments of American sailors during Napoleonic wars  leads to war of 1812  Washington steps down 1796

49  1. As a result of the 1800 presidential election results, A. A constitutional amendment set up separate electoral votes for president and vice-president. B. Hamilton's economic program was dismantled. C. John Adams joined the Republican Party. D. The Federalist Party gained power.  2. In the video, Professor Joseph Ellis observes that the creation of political parties allows A. the elite to control elections. B. political dissent to coexist without violence. C. minority groups to gain political leverage. D. incumbent politicians to maintain their offices.

50

51

52  Removals and relocations of American Indians occurred throughout the 17th and 18th centuries  Developed to massive proportions during the 19th century  Indian Renewal Act of 1830  Provided for the exchange of American Indian land in any state or territory of US

53 Indian Removal Act 1830  Instrumental in relocating Southeastern Indians  Shifted to lands in the trans- Mississippi west  Exceptionally tragic was the removal of the Cherokee  Occurred during the late 1830s

54 nunna dual Tsunyi,  In Cherokee means literally, “the trail where we cried.”  Become known in English as the “Trail of Tears.”

55 Brief History of Cherokee  Estimated that there were over 22,000 Cherokee during the 1600s.  In the 18th century they suffered from smallpox epidemics  Epidemic in severe, reduced tribe by half  Another smallpox epidemic depopulated them in 1760

56  From the 1760s to the early 1780s the Cherokee were also in almost constant warfare with the colonists on their lands  They sided with the British in the Revolutionary War, and by 1782 they were “reduced to the lowest depth of misery”  Then in the following year another small pox epidemic devastated the tribe

57  By end 18th century the Cherokee numbered slightly more than 13,000  With natural increase by 1835 about 22,000  What the population is estimated to have been some 200 years earlier  Cherokee tribal lands had once been immense comprising much of the southeastern region of the US

58  By 1830s, Cherokee Country, as it was called, encompassed area where the states of NC, TN, GA, and AL, more or less come together  Subjected to continued harassment by Georgia and pressures from the US government  particularly President Andrew Jackson  to cede remaining lands and move west of the Mississippi  Cherokee resisted

59  After three years and much harassment  Treaty was signed between the Cherokee and the US government  But not by the principal officers of the Cherokee nation  Signers ceded to the US the Cherokee lands in the Southeast in exchange for lands in Indian Territory and 15 million

60  Leaders of the Cherokee nation protested violently during the next years that the treaty should not be ratified.  Protests were to no avail  The Cherokee were disarmed and removal began in 1838

61  Ordeal did not end on arrival in Indian Territory  Many survived the journey only to be stricken with disease in the new lands  Or to die there of starvation  As many as one-half of the early immigrants died before the year was out  Estimated that over 8000 Cherokee may have died as more or less direct result of the Trail of Tears


Download ppt " 1. As a result of the 1800 presidential election results, A. A constitutional amendment set up separate electoral votes for president and vice-president."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google