Term Test One Family values are respected more in a small family firm. Ayn Rand’s philosophies have guided the U.S. economy. Cognitive dissonance is the discomfort of holding two conflicting attitudes (or attitude v. behavior). “You Can Do It” strengthens Perceived Behavioral Control. Self-confidence can lead to successful behaviors. Myers Briggs tests tell you where people like you tend to work. Ethnocentrism is looking at other cultures through your lens. Written transcript reveals little in a high-context culture. Hard to change from a hierarchy to an adhocracy.
Term Test One Friedman says generate profit and let shareholders decide. Businesses know nothing about charity and distort them. Leaders are not elected and steal from workers, customers, … GLOBE dimensions … Social categorization theory says we trust others who mirror us. Diverse people do not; we do not understand or trust them. We are asked to accept people we naturally fear.
Model of Perception Perception – cognitive process that enables us to interpret and understand our surroundings
Selective Attention Attention – process of becoming consciously aware of something or someone
There is very little that we control
Selective Attention Salient – something that stands out from context
Simplification Schema – Represent a person’s mental picture, summary, or “script” about a particular event or type of stimulus
For Sale: Baby Shoes, Never Worn (probably not Hemingway)
Storage Event memory (episodic) – information about both specific and general events Semantic memory – general knowledge about the world, mental dictionary of concepts Person memory – information about a single individual or groups of people
Hiring Interviewers make hiring decisions based on their impression of how an applicant fits the perceived requirements of a job and on the basis of implicit cognition Implicit cognition – represents any thoughts or beliefs that are automatically activated from memory without our conscious awareness.
Implicit Association Test
Performance Appraisal Important for managers to accurately identify the behavioral characteristics and results indicative of good performance Characteristics serve as the benchmarks for evaluating employee performance
Leadership Good leaders exhibit the following behaviors: – Assigning specific tasks to group members – Telling others they had done well – Setting specific goals for the group
Stereotypes Stereotype – An individual’s set of beliefs about the characteristics or attributes of a group Not always negative May or may not be accurate – a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person.
Stereotypes It is important to remember that stereotypes are a fundamental component of the perception process and we use them to help process the large amount of information that bombards us daily. It is not immoral or bad to possess stereotypes Inappropriate use of stereotypes can lead to poor decisions
Process 1.Categorize people into groups by various criteria 2.Infer that everyone in that category has the same traits 3.Form expectations and interpret behavior accordingly 4.Maintain stereotypes by: – Overestimating stereotypic behavior – Incorrectly explaining behaviors – Differentiating minority individuals from oneself
Sex-Role Stereotypes 1.People often prefer male bosses (yes, even women) 2.Women are rarely perceived as effective leaders 3.Women of color are more negatively affected by sex-role stereotypes than white women or men in general
Age Stereotypes Age stereotypes reinforce age discrimination because of their negative orientation. Long-standing age stereotypes depict older workers as less satisfied, not as involved with their work, less motivated, not as committed
Age Stereotypes Research shows that as age increases so does employees’ job satisfaction, job involvement, internal work motivation, and organizational commitment.* Moreover, older workers are not more accident prone. * Having interviewed only those who are working …
Racial/Ethnic Stereotypes Micro aggressions – represent “biased thoughts, attitudes, and feelings” that exist at an unconscious level
Racial/Ethnic Stereotypes Micro aggressions – represent “biased thoughts, attitudes, and feelings” that exist at an unconscious level Stereotype threat – refers to the ‘predicament’ in which members of a social group ‘must deal with the possibility of being judged or treated stereotypically, or of doing something that would confirm the stereotype.’”
Recommendations An organization first needs to inform its workforce about the dangers of stereotyping through employee education and training Managers need to identify valid individual differences that differentiate between successful and unsuccessful performers. Remove promotional barriers for men and women, people of color, and persons with disabilities
Pygmalion Self-fulfilling prophecy – someone’s high expectations for another person result in high performance for that person – Also known as Pygmalion effect
Result motivation Behavior Expect Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Galatea effect – occurs when an individual’s high self-expectations for him- or herself lead to high performance Golem effect (Theory X) – a loss in performance resulting from low leader expectations Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Others’ Expectations Your Expectations LOW HIGH Pygmalion Effect Golem Effect Galatea Effect
1.Recognize that everyone has the potential to increase his or her performance (Mindset) 2.Set high performance goals. 3.Positively reinforce employees for a job well done. 4.Provide frequent feedback that conveys a belief in employees’ ability to complete their tasks. 5.Give employees the opportunity to experience increasingly challenging tasks and projects.
6.Communicate by using facial expressions, voice intonations, body language, and encouraging comments that reflect high expectations. 7.Provide employees with the input, information, and resources they need to achieve their goals. 8.Introduce new employees as if they have outstanding potential. 9.Encourage employees to stay focused on the present moment and not to worry about negative past events. 10.Help employees master key skills and tasks.
Attribution Behavior can be attributed either to: Internal factors within a person (such as intent) or to: External factors within the environment (such as duress)
Kelley’s Model Consensus – involves a comparison of an individual’s behavior with that of his peers. Distinctiveness – involves comparing a person’s behavior on one task with the behavior from other tasks. Consistency – determined by judging if the individual’s performance on a given task is consistent over time.
Tendencies Fundamental attribution bias – Reflects one’s tendency to attribute another person’s behavior to his or her personal characteristics, as opposed to situational factors. Self-serving bias – Represents one’s tendency to take more personal responsibility for success than for failure.
Implications One study revealed that managers gave employees more immediate, frequent, and negative feedback when they attributed their performance to low effort. A second study indicated that managers tended to transfer employees whose poor performance was attributed to a lack of ability.
Implications Men and women have different attributions regarding the causes of being promoted Managers tend to disproportionately attribute behavior to internal causes that can result in inaccurate evaluations of performance, leading to reduced employee motivation
老贾老贾 and, as always, thank you for choosing UMD, the home of the Bulldogs dogs