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CH: 24.1: Dictators Threaten World Peace OBJECTIVE: Understand the factors behind the rise of dictators and how they made neutrality problematic.

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Presentation on theme: "CH: 24.1: Dictators Threaten World Peace OBJECTIVE: Understand the factors behind the rise of dictators and how they made neutrality problematic."— Presentation transcript:

1 CH: 24.1: Dictators Threaten World Peace OBJECTIVE: Understand the factors behind the rise of dictators and how they made neutrality problematic.

2 NOTE: I strongly recommend you use the following website: yhistory/exhibition/flash.html yhistory/exhibition/flash.html

3 What were the failures of the Treaty of Versailles? It humiliated Germany, and it meant to. Russia was not included. It lost more land than Germany did, leaving it wanting more. Allies stripped Germany of its colonies, but kept and expanded their own. EFFECT: Problems of the treaty, combined with the global depression and burden of reparations caused Democracies in Europe to collapse. Totalitarian dictatorships took their place!!!

4 THE RISE OF DICTATORS Germany –Hitler : pogroms (11/1938 Krystallnacht), burning of the Reichstag Italy –Mussolini: purges, Ethiopia Spain –Franco: Guernica, Spanish Civil War What about Russia and Japan? –Stalin and Emperor Hirohito NOTE: I strongly recommend you use the following website:

5 What are the differences between: socialismcommunism totalitarianism Why would people be attracted to totalitarianism? What is the best example of totalitarianism in our world today?

6 1.IDENTIFY THE AGGRESSIVE ACTIONS OF THE DICTATORS AND THEN 2.AMERICA’S RESPONSES DICATORAGGRESSIONUSA’S RESPONSE Stalin Mussolini Hitler Japan

7 Replaced Lenin as leader of the USSR “purged” his country of capitalism Created state-run farms and factories Forced industrialization of the USSR with “Five Year Plans” Police state and “purges” caused death of 8 to 13 MILLION. JOSEPH STALIN

8 BENITO MUSSOLINI  Appeals to WWI veterans  Advocates a strong, centralized govt. under a dictator = fascism Opposed to communism  Formed a militia called “black-shirts”  Seized total control of Italy through force and intimidation

9 Generalisimo Francisco Franco Totalitarian dictator of Spain Spanish Civil-War fought between Fascists and “Republicans” – a motley group of communists, foreign volunteers, and opponents of fascism. TERRIBLE ATROCITIES ON BOTH SIDES!!!

10 ADOLF HITLER  Veteran of WWI  Joins the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi)  Extreme Nationalist  Purity of the Aryan race  Expansion of the German state  Publishes Mein Kampf (My Struggle) while in prison  Elected Chancellor in 1933; quickly dissolves Wiemar Republic; declares the Third Reich HOW DID THE GLOBAL DEPRESSION HELP HITLER???

11 Hitler The German leader Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) is surrounded in this propagandistic painting by images that came to symbolize hate, genocide, and war: Nazi flags with emblems of the swastika; the iron cross on the dictator's pocket; and Nazi troops in loyal salute. The anti- Semitic Hitler denounced the United States as a "Jewish rubbish heap" of "inferiority and decadence" that was "incapable of conducting war." (U.S. Army Center of Military History) Hitler Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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13 Militarists in Japan Militarists in Japan control the Emperor and Japan Japan wants to expand its empire through Asia and the Pacific Japan invades Manchuria in 1931 League of Nations condemns the invasion, but does nothing to intervene Japan’s militarists tighten their control over Japan Japan launches second invasion of China in 1937 US protests, FDR calls for embargo of Japan

14 Map: Japanese Expansion Before Pearl Harbor Japanese Expansion Before Pearl Harbor The Japanese quest for predominance began at the turn of the century and intensified in the 1930s. China suffered the most at the hands of Tokyo's military. Vulnerable U.S. possessions in Asia and the Pacific proved no obstacle to Japan's ambitions for a Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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16 Japanese Death Camps ~wwu/images/truth/genocide/ japan_deathfactory_map.jpg Everyone knows about the Nazi Holocaust, but very few know about the genocide of 13 million civilians during the Japanese occupation of China. The climax of this horror was the Nanking Massacre, the focus of this article. On December 13, 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army stormed the Chinese city of Nanking, and during the following six weeks, 300,000 people were killed and over 20,000 women were raped. Nanking's kill frequency exceeds that of the Nazi Holocaust, and most frighteningly, was not at all systematic in execution.

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18 Rape of Nanking –

19 Aggression in Europe Hitler pulls out of League of Nations in 1933 Hitler follows Japan’s example and militarizes Rhineland in 1935 (against Treaty of Versailles) Germany and Italy form an alliance in 1935 Mussolini invades Ethiopia in 1935 The League protests, but does not act Germany and Italy support Franco in Spain Spain becomes totalitarian state in 1939 under Franco

20 American Response Isolationism 1934: Senator Nye’s investigations re: munitions –Argues that Arms Dealers pushed US into WWI Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, & 1937 –Outlawed selling arms to nations at war or in civil war Decline of armed forces and navy DID THESE POLICIES WORK?

21 1.IDENTIFY THE AGGRESSIVE ACTIONS OF THE DICTATORS AND THEN 2.AMERICA’S RESPONSES DICATORAGGRESSIONUSA’S RESPONSE Stalin Mussolini Hitler Japan


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