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Chapter 17 Section 3 The Rise of Militarism.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Section 3 The Rise of Militarism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17 Section 3 The Rise of Militarism

2 Mussolini in Italy Although on the winning side of WWI, thousands of Italian veterans were unable to find jobs and many joined the Italian Communist Party To destroy the Communist Party and promote his own power, {Benito Mussolini founded the Fascist Party} in 1921 {Fascists believed that a military dominated government should control all aspects of society.} Clashes between Communists and Fascists created a situation that bordered on civil war In October 1922 {Mussolini led an army called the Blackshirts} to march on Rome and occupied the city Mussolini was made prime minister of Italy and used his power to march on a weak Ethiopia. Because the U.S. did not want to get pulled into the conflict it refused aid to both sides. This hurt Ethiopia more than Italy It also portrayed to other fascist countries, like Germany, that aggression would go unpunished

3 Mussolini's Blackshirts included men, women and children

4 Stalin and the Soviet Union
After the death of Vladimir Lenin in 1924, a struggle broke out among the Communist Party leaders By using unethical means, such as the assassination of his competition and enemies, Joseph Stalin came to by the country’s leader Stalin turned the Soviet Union into a {totalitarian state- a country where the government has complete control.} He began taking private lands by force. When the farmers would fight back they would be sent to labor camps (along with about 15 million others by 1933) With no farmers, Stalin’s policy resulted in widespread famine {Stalin enforced his rule through the Red Army.} Stalin began a campaign to eliminate all perceived enemies from the Communist Party with the Red Army


6 Hitler in Germany In 1932 Hitler’s Nazi Party won nearly 40% of the vote in national elections Hitler wrote Mein Kampf while in prison. His book laid out his plans for Germany and blamed Jews, Communists and intellectuals for Germany’s decline {Hitler’s government was called the Third Reich.} It claimed dictatorial powers like prohibiting non-Nazis from holding governmental positions {Hitler’s Nazi soldiers became known known as Brownshirts} Hitler rearmed Germany which was in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. But Hitler said that the rearmament was to help the economy and reduce unemployment In March 1936, German troops moved into the Rhineland. Two years later they took Austria. He then turned to Czechoslovakia. Czech. refused to surrender


8 Anti-Semitism Meanwhile Hitler’s {anti-Semitism, or hatred of Jews}, became official government policy. In 1935 Hitler instituted the Nuremberg Laws, which stated that Jews were no longer German citizens and endorsed the destruction of Jewish property. On November 9, 1938, Nazi’s burned down synagogues and destroyed Jewish businesses in a violent display that was just a glimpse of what was to come for the Jewish population in what was came to be known as Kristallnacht “the night of broken glass” Increased oppression led many Jews to flee the country, {but the vast majority had neither the money or the means to leave Germany} Hundreds came to the United States, but the U.S. had strict immigration laws. Despite such atrocities as the Kristallnacht, Americans were unwilling to encourage Jewish immigration



11 Franco in Spain Fascism also spread to Spain
In 1931 a new constitution was put into effect that limited the power of the military and the Catholic Church. Feeling threatened, the military united under the leadership of {General Francisco Franco In July 1936 the Fascist army tried to overthrow the government, starting the Spanish Civil War.} After about three years of fighting, Franco took over the government with German and Italian aid But again fearing involvement in a war, Roosevelt kept the U.S. from sending aid A number of {Americans formed the Popular Front- an international alliance that was united against fascism} After the Spanish Civil War, many remained bitter about America’s failure to support their cause


13 Militarists in Japan As Germany was threatening Europe, Japan’s military forces were gaining power. The military forces sought to lessen Japans reliance on foreign imports, lessen the influence of western countries in Asia and expansion through East Asia and the Pacific The poor condition of the economy of Japan led to the appeal of the militarists’ position In violation of their Washington Conference promises, Japan invaded Manchuria and began to build up a large navy. On July 7, 1937, Japan and China battled near Beijing, leading to a full scale war. Japan launched bombing raids against Chinese cities and that December Japanese troops occupied the Chinese city of Nanjing Although the League of Nations and the U.S. condemned Japan’s actions, they failed to stop them

14 The Japanese attack on the Chinese city of Nanjing

15 Art stature outside the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Museum Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

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