Presentation on theme: "13.5 week study guide December 6 th, 2013. Brainteaser#38: 12-6-13 1.Name the four stages of Athenian government? 2.Where is Rome located? 3.Describe."— Presentation transcript:
13.5 week study guide December 6 th, 2013
Brainteaser#38: Name the four stages of Athenian government? 2.Where is Rome located? 3.Describe the Byzantine Culture? 4.Baghdad fell to what group of people? 5.Charlemagne built what to unite the empire?
Monarchy, Aristocracy, Tyranny and Democracy It centrally located in the Mediterranean basin and distant from the eastern Mediterranean powers Continued flourishing of Greco-Romans traditions, Greek language (as contrasted with Latin in the west, Greek or Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries The Mongols Schools, Roads, and churches
13.5 week study guide(5a) Page1 Aegean Sea Macedonia to the north=Philip and Alexander Limited Hellenistic Barter economy City-states Civic Colonization
5b Page 2 Polytheistic Religion Explanations, human qualities Life events Zeus Hera God of music, healing, property: Apollo
5c Free male adults Women and Foreigners 1.Monarchy 2.Aristocracy 3.Tyranny 4.Democracy Solon=began of democracy
5c 1.Direct democracy-all citizens participate 2.Public debate-in the agora 3.Duties of the citizen Small Social militaristic
5d Sparta Aegean Athens Delian Peloponnesian Political=sets the stage for the Macedonian Invasion
5e Democracy Equal Persian Parthenon=temple to honor Athena
5f Drama: Aeschylus, Sophocies Poetry: Homer(Illad and Odyssey) History Herodotus( Father of History), Thucydides( History Repeats itself) Sculpture: Phidias Types of columns: Doric(plain), Ionic(little more elaborate) and Corinthian(very elaborate)
5f Science: Archimedes(Lever), Hippocrates(Father of Medicine) Mathematics: Euclid, Pythagoras( Pythagorean theorem) Philosophy: Socrates(questions?), Plato( the Academy) and Aristotle.
5g Philip II, King of Macedon, conquered most of Greece Alexander the great Established an empire from Greece to Egypt and the margins of India Extended Greek cultural influences Hellenistic Age: Blend of Greek and Oriental elements Spread of Hellenistic culture through trade
6a Rome: Centrally located in the Mediterranean Basin and distant from eastern Mediterranean powers Italian Peninsula Alps: Protection Mediterranean Sea: Protection, sea-borne, trade
6b Roman Mythology Based on the Greek Polytheistic Religion Explanations of natural phenomena, Human qualities and life events Roman gods and goddesses: Jupiter(King of the Gods), Juno( His wife), Apollo(God of the sun), Diana(Goddess of the hunt), Minerva(Goddess of Wisdom), Venus(Goddess of Beauty)
6b Symbols and images in Literature, art and architecture
6c Social Structure in the Roman Republic: Patricians: Powerful nobility of Rome(Few in number) Plebeians: Majority of population Slaves: Not based on Race Citizenship: Patrician and Plebeian men, Selected foreigners, Rights and Responsibilities of citizenship(ex. Taxes, Military service)
6c Representative Democracy-Elected officials Assemblies Senate( Law making body of Rome) Consuls( two ruled together, Head of gov’t, Ruled the army and directed the gov’t, one consul could veto the other Laws of Rome codified as Twelve Tables
6d Punic Wars: Rome v. Carthage( B.C) Rome and Carthage were in competition for Trade Hannibal invaded the Italian Peninsula Three wars resulted in Roman Victory, the destruction of Carthage and expanded trade and wealth for Rome
6d Evolution of the Roman Empire and spread of Roman culture: Mediterranean Basin( Africa, Asia, Europe, including the Hellenistic world of the eastern Mediterranean) Western Europe(Gaul, British Isles)
6e Causes for the decline of the Roman Republic: Spread of slavery in the agricultural system Migration of small farmers into cities and unemployment Civil war over the power of Julius Caesar Devaluation of roman currency: inflation
6f The origin and evolution of Imperial Rome First Triumvirate( Caesar, Crassus, Pompey) Julius Caesar: Seizure of Power, assassination by senate, ides of march, senate were afraid of his power Augustus Caesar: Civil War, defeat of Marc Anthony, Rome’s first emperor Empire: Unified and enlarged, using imperial authority and the military
6f Failure to provide for peaceful succession of Emperors.
6g The Pax Romana: Two hundred years of peace and prosperity under imperial rule Expansion and solidification of the Roman empire, particularity in the near east
6g Economic impact of the Pax Romana Established uniform system of money, which helped to expand trade Guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman Roads Promoted prosperity and stability
6g Social impact of the Pax Romana Returned stability to social classes Increased emphasis on the family Political impact of the Pax Romana Created a civil service Developed a uniformed rule of law
6h Christianity: Had its roots in Judaism Was led by Jesus of Nazareth, who was proclaimed the Messiah( Jesus the founder of Christianity) Conflicted with Polytheistic beliefs of Roman Empire
6h Beliefs, traditions, and customs of Christianity: Monotheism Jesus as both son and incarnation of God Life after death New testament, containing accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus, as well as writings of early Christians Christian doctrines established by early church councils
6h Spread of Christianity: Popularity of the message: gave hope to all people including women Early Martyrs inspired others Carried by the Apostles, including Paul throughout the Roman Empire
6i Impact of the Church of Rome in the late Roman Empire The Emperor Constantine_________________ converted to Christianity and made it legal. Christianity later became the official state religion. The Church became a source of ____Moral__________ authority. Loyalty to the Church became more important than loyalty to the _________Emperor_______. The Church became the main unifying force of ______Western_______ Europe
6j Contributions of ancient Rome Art and ___Architecture_______________: Pantheon, Colosseum, Forum Technology: Roads, aqueducts, Roman arches Science: Achievements of Ptolemy Medicine: Emphasis on public ___Health_________ (public baths, public water systems, medical schools) Language: Latin, Romance languages Literature: Virgil’s _Aeneid_____________ Religion: Roman mythology; adoption of Christianity as the imperial religion Law: The principle of “_____Innocent_____________ until proven ______Guilty_______” (from the Twelve Tables )
6k Causes for the decline of the Western Roman Empire _____Geographic________ size: Difficulty of defense and administration Economy: The cost of ___Defense___________, and devaluation of Roman currency Military: Army membership started to include _________Non-Romans_________, resulting in decline of discipline _____Moral________ decay: People’s loss of faith in Rome and the family Political problems: Civil conflict and weak administration Invasion: Attacks on borders
6k Division of the Roman Empire Move of the capital by Constantine from Rome to _________Byzantium________, renaming it Constantinople Survival of the Western Roman Empire until 476 A. D. ( C. E.), when it ceased to have a Roman Emperor _____Eastern________ Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)
7a Protection of the ______________eastern Frontier_________________ Distance from ___________Germanic Invasions_______________________ in the western empire Crossroads of trade Easily fortified site on a peninsula bordered by ________Natural Harbors___________________
7a Role of Constantinople Seat of the _Byzantine Empire____until _________Ottoman__ conquest Preserved classical __Greco-Roman________ culture Center of trade
7b Codification of _Roman__________ _______Law____ (impact on European legal codes) Reconquest of former ______Roman_____territories Expansion of _____Trade______
7c Inspiration provided by Christian religion and imperial power Icons (religious images) Mosaics in public and religious structures Hagia Sophia (a Byzantine domed church)
7c Byzantine culture Continued flourishing of _______________Greco- Roman__________________ traditions _____Greek______ language (as contrasted with Latin in the West) ________Greek Orthodox Christianity or Eastern Orthodox_________________________ ____Greek_______ and ___Roman________ knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries
7d Eastern Church Centered in Constantinople Close to seat of power after Constantinople became capital Use of Greek Language
7d Western Church Centered in __Rome_________ Farther from seat of power after ______Constantinople_______________ became capital Use of __Latin_________ language in the liturgy
7d Division between Western and Eastern Churches Authority of the Pope___________ eventually accepted in the _West__________ Authority of the ____Patriarch__________________ accepted in the East Practices such as ____Celibacy_______ eventually accepted in the West
7e Influence of Byzantine culture on Eastern Europe and Russia Trade routes along the black and Baltic seas Adoption of Orthodox Christianity by Russia and eastern Europe Adoption of Greek alphabet for the Slavic languages by ST. Cyril Church Architecture and religious art
8a Origins of Islam __________Muhammad____________, the Prophet ___Mecca________ and ______Medina_____ on the Arabian Peninsula: Early Muslim cities
8a Spread of Islam Across Asia and ____Africa_______ and into _Spain__________ Geographic extent of first Muslim empire
8a Beliefs, traditions, and customs of Islam _______Monotheism______: Allah (Arabic word for God) _____________Quran(Koran)____: The word of God ______Five_____ ___Pillars________ of Islam Acceptance of Judeo-Christian prophets, including ___Moses________ and ______Jesus_____
8b Geographic influences on the origin and spread of Islam Diffusion along trade routes from ___Mecca________ and _____Medina______ Expansion despite great distances, __Desert_________ __________Environments__, and ______Mountain_____ barriers Spread into the ________Fertile Crescent___ _____, Iran, and Central Asia facilitated by weak Byzantine and Persian empires
8b Geographic influences on economic, social, and political development Political unity of the first _____Muslim______ ____Empire_______ was short-lived. ____Arabic_______ language spread with Islam and facilitated __Trade_________ across Islamic lands. _______Slavery____ was not based on ___Race________.
8c Historical turning points Death of Ali: Sunni/Shia Division(over who should be in charge of Islam Muslim Conquests of Jerusalem and Damascus Islamic Capital moved to Baghdad Muslim defeat Battle of Tours Fall of Baghdad to the Mongols
8d Cultural contributions and achievements Architecture: Dome of the Rock Mosaics Arabic Alphabet Universities Translations of Ancient texts into Arabic
8d Scientific contributions and achievements Medicine Astronomy Numbering System with zero Algebra Expansion of Geographic Knowledge
9a Foundations of early medieval society Classical Heritage of Rome Christian Beliefs Customs of Germanic Tribes
9a Influence of the Roman Catholic Church __________Secular Authority___________ declined, while Church authority grew.(gov’t and church) _____Monasteries______ preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements. Missionaries carried Christianity and ____Latin______ ___Alphabet_________ to Germanic tribes. The Pope anointed ________Charlemagne___ Emperor in 800 A. D. ( C. E.) Parish priests served religious and social needs of the people.
9b Feudal society during the Middle Ages Fiefs-Land given by the lord Vassals/ knights- Receives the fief for military service Serfs- Laborer bound to the land Feudal Obligations- contracts service for protection
9b Manorial system during the Middle Ages Rigid class structure Self- sufficient Manors
9c Age of Charlemagne ____________Franks(French)______ emerged as a force in Western Europe. The ____Pope_______ crowned the Emperor. Power of the ___Church________ was established in political life. ______Roman_____ culture was reinterpreted. Most of _____Western Europe_________________ was included in the new empire. _____Churches______, ___Roads________, and ______Schools_____ were built to unite the empire.
9d Areas of settlement _______Angles______ and _____Saxons__________ migrated from continental Europe to England. ________________Magyars_____ migrated from Central Asia to Hungary. ________Vikings_____ migrated from Scandinavia to Russia.
9d Influence of the Angles, Saxons, Magyars, and Vikings Manors with castles provided protection from invaders, reinforcing the feudal system Invasions disrupted trade, towns declined, the feudal system was strengthened