Introduction Assignment Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper: Is there a caption to any of these photos? What do the people look like? Who might they be? What are they doing? Where are they? What is in the background? Are the photos posed or spontaneous? Why might the photographer have taken the photos? What message is the photographer trying to get across? What if there was a new caption written? Would it change how the photo was viewed?
Thursday, March 20 bell work If Bismarck never would have gotten fired, would World War I still have occurred? Think about the actions of Wilhelm II. Think about imperialism and nationalism. WRITE A 5-SENTENCE PARAGRAPH STATING AND JUSTIFYING YOUR ARGUMENT
A Nice Peace…Interrupted By 1914 Europe had almost gone an entire century without a major war! Many hoped a continued sense of pacifism (opposition to all war) would continue in the future. However, several issues started to escalate and would eventually lead to the outbreak of world war.
Background Causes of WWI M - Militarism A - Alliances I – Imperialism N – Nationalism
Militarism Leads to WWI 1800s – Saw a rise in militarism (glorification, build up of a country’s military) Very romantic to be a part of the military Major countries in Europe industrializing meant they could produce massive amounts of “war material” for their militaries. So they do! And there’s a domino effect. As one country does it, so do the others. There’s an arms race. They become more suspicious of each other, making the outbreak of war more likely.
Domino Effect Examples Bismarck emphasizes the military in Germany. France builds up to defend against Germany. Russia builds up to guard against Germany. Austria builds up to guard against Russia. Britain build up to counter Germany’s Navy. THIS IS A MASSIVE ARMS RACE.
…Militarism Continued Militarism in Europe makes all of the European countries physically ready to go to war. If a conflict were to break out, countries would need relatively little time to prepare. But note that militarism is also a government's attitude of mind, seeing war as a valid means of foreign policy. ( GERMANY was especially militaristic.)
Bigger & Better Armies Remember TWO-FRONT war? GERMANY, worried because it was in-between France and Russia, built up the largest land army. The German army was accepted as being the biggest and the best in the world. But other countries built up their land armies too – in 1914, the fastest growing army was that of RUSSIA. This worried GERMANY a lot. Everyone had HUGE armies except Britain.
Alliances Led to WWI An alliance is forming a partnership between two or more parties to achieve a common interest. Teaming up!
It Was First for Peace Alliances were originally intended to prevent the outbreak of war by creating powerful combinations that no one would dare attack. Gradually, two two huge alliances formed: The Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy The Triple Entente (Allies) France, Russia, Britain
How Did Britain Get In The Mix? Remember Bismarck? He secretly allied with Russia! Wilhelm II fired him and let this alliance expire! Russia then allied with France! Meanwhile….Germany continues to build up its military (they are seen as being very aggressive) Britain joins with France and Russia in respond to the increased military power of Germany. The do this by forming an entente (a non-binding agreement to follow common policies). less formal as a treaty & led to closer military and diplomatic ties
Just Waiting For A Moment Even though alliances were originally intended to deter (prevent) war from breaking out... With the major countries all in powerful alliances, it made it possible for small disputes to turn into large-scale wars.
Imperialism Led to WWI… By 1914, most of Africa and Asia were controlled by various European countries. There were relatively few territories left that were unoccupied by industrial nations.
Economic Rivalries Britain worried about Germany’s rapid economic growth Germany thought Britain and other countries did not give them enough respect’ All major European countries were looking to secure more land! As a result, TENSIONS RISE as European countries compete more for the remaining colonies.
Nationalism Led to WWI Remember - Nationalism is pride in your people/country Aggressive nationalism was reason for international tensions: Germans were proud of their new powerful and industrial country France longed to regain its position as Europe’s leading power Both were motivated by nationalism to fight to keep their country on top
UNDERSTAND The arms race of militarism was tied in to both NATIONALISM and IMPERIALISM. It increased SUSPICION and HATRED of other nations - and it gave the nations the ABILITY/EXCUSE to wage war.
WRITE ABOUT activity STEP 1: DRAW SOME TYPE OF ILLUSTRATION REPRESENTING THE M.A.I.N. CAUSES OF WWI STEP 2: LIST OUT ANY KEY WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH THE M.A.I.N. CAUSES OF WWI But be wise when choosing them, because you must use all in step 3. STEP 3: WRITE A 1-PARAGRAPH SUMMARY OF THE M.A.I.N. CAUSES OF WWI USING EACH TERM IN STEP 2. Check off the terms when you use them. Circle the terms in your paragraph.
(SET) Friday Questions Describe Europe before 1914 in terms of war status. What does MAIN stand for? Explain the domino effect of militarism in Europe. Describe how militarism was seen as a foreign policy and give an example. Discuss the build up of armies in Europe during the early 1900s. Explain how alliances led to the beginning of World War I List the two major alliances that emerged before World War I. How did Britain enter into an alliance?
Eastern European Nationalism Russia sponsored a powerful form of nationalism in Eastern Europe called Pan- Slavism. It held that all Slavic peoples shared a common nationality. Russia felt it had a duty to lead and defend all Slavs. It supported the young nation of Serbia in 1914. This entire part of Europe was known as the “powder keg” – a tiny spark may lead to an explosion!
Pan-Slavism Austria-Hungary’s empire controlled many different peoples who were not Austrian, nor Hungarian. A nationalist movement that sought to unite all Slavic people across Europe. The Slavic people wanted their OWN country. The problem is, many of the Slavic people lived in territories ruled by Austria-Hungary.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Heir to the Austro- Hungarian throne THINK – who is Austria-Hungary allied with?
Gavrilo Princip A Slavic nationalist from Serbia who assassinated Franz Ferdinand. The assassin was motivated by the Slavic nationalist movement. (The Slavic people seeking to gain their independence from Austria-Hungary.)
Gavrilo Princip "I am a Yugoslav nationalist, aiming for the unification of all Yugoslavs, and I do not care what form of state, but it must be free from Austria."
A Very Angry Austria-Hungary Someone from Serbia just assassinated the heir to their throne! Austria- Hungary must react! But what to do? The question is: How will Austria- Hungary deal with Serbia? The problem is: Tiny Serbia is allied with Russia who also has a large Slavic population, and Russia is allied with France and Great Britain.
“Blank Check” Germany gave Austria-Hungary a “blank check,” to punish Serbia. This was not an actual check. The blank check was a commitment by Germany to back up Austria-Hungary in however they chose to deal with Serbia.
Ultimatum Is Issued to Serbia Following the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, Austria-Hungary sent an ultimatum (final list of demands) to Serbia. Serbia neglected to meet all of the demands. So Austria declared war on Serbia on July 28 th, 1914. World War I officially begins!!!!!
After Austria Declares War… Russia mobilizes (prepares its military forces for war) and declares war on Austria. Germany declares war on Russia. France declares war on Germany. Germany invades through Belgium to get to France. This angers Great Britain who then declares war on Germany.
When War Breaks Out… ALLIES Russia France Great Britain *We will add more to each side as the war progresses CENTRAL POWERS Germany Austria-Hungary *Italy declared neutrality (policy of not supporting either side of the war) for the time being