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Key Terms – Causes of World War I

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1 Key Terms – Causes of World War I
Pan-Slavism Pan-Germanism Arms Race Dual Alliance Triple Alliance Central Powers Triple Entente Allied Powers Archduke Franz Ferdinand Black Hand

2 Background Geographical factors had fostered important movements within Europe. These factors served as long-term causes of World War I: Imperialism Nationalism Militarism Entangling Alliances International Anarchy

3 Imperialism and Nationalism
Tensions grew from imperialism that were nationalistic by nature. Countries believed that they were superior to others which gave them the right to rule over territories outside of their own borders. Examples include: Russia and Austria-Hungary competing for control of the Balkans as Russia sought warm-water ports. Germany and France fighting over control of Morocco in Northern Africa Russia and Japan competing over control of Korea

4 Pan-Slavism and Pan-Germanism
Nationalism gave rise to two movements, Pan- Slavism and Pan-Germanism. Pan-Slavism → people who belonged to this movement believed that it was Russia's right and duty to protect Slavic peoples anywhere in Europe. Pan-Germanism → people who sought the protection of all German-speaking people within Europe. Therefore, Russia took the side of Serbia as they were protecting Slavic peoples there and Germany backed Austria-Hungary due to their German roots.

5 Militarism Militarism → policy of building up a country's navies and armies in preparation for future warfare. Countries believed that having a large military force gave them more power and allowed them to solve any problems with military force. This gave rise to more military control within countries and the need to compete against one another to build the largest armies → also known as an arms race. Many countries began to attempt to rival the power of the British and began to build in earnest more and more ships and hire more and more troops.

6 Entangling Alliances The tensions and fear created by imperialism, nationalism and militarism led to the creation of entangling alliances. Pan-Germanism led to the creation of the Dual Alliance → union of Austria-Hungary and Germany; this would later become the Triple Alliance with the inclusion of Italy. Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire would join the Triple Alliance creating the Central Powers As Germany's militarism grew, the other European powers merged forming the Triple Entente → union of England, France, and Russia. As other nations joined (Japan), the Triple Entente became the Allied Powers These alliances made war significantly more likely.

7 Alliances During World War I

8 The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The immediate cause of World War I was the assassination of the heir to the Austrian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914. Issues between Serbs and South Slavs led to actions taken by the South Slavs which included the assassination. A nationalist group known as the Black Hand was responsible.

9 Declaration of War Austria-Hungary demanded the removal of the Serbian government officials who opposed Austria-Hungary which Serbia would reject. As a result, Germany, who had formed an alliance with Austria-Hungary backed them when they declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. The Entangling Alliances would take effect: Russia came to the aid of Serbia due to Pan-Slavism Germany declared war on Russia and France. The German movement through neutral Belgium prompted Britain to declare war on Germany. Italy remained neutral until 1915, then joined the Allied Powers.

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