Presentation on theme: "The Great War 1914-1918 In Europe, military buildup, nationalistic feelings, and rival alliances set the stage for a continental war."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Great WarIn Europe, military buildup, nationalistic feelings, and rival alliances set the stage for a continental war
2 MilitarismPolicy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for warHaving a large, strong standing army made citizens feel patrioticOthers were frightened by the potential disturbance of peace
3 Militarism cont.~ European nations believed to be truly great, they needed a powerful military, leading to the rise of a dangerous European arms race…by 1914→ all powers had large standing armiesEXCEPT Great BritainMilitary experts stressed the importance of being able to quickly organize and move troops in case of warGenerals in each country developed highly detailed plans for such mobilization
4 ALLIANCESGrowing rivalries and mistrust had led to the creation of several military alliances among Great PowersDesigned to keep peace in Europe→ instead it helped push the continent into war
5 1. The Alliance SystemTriple Entente:Triple Alliance:
6 Alliance SystemSerbian assassins kill Franz Ferdinand (heir to the Austro-Hungarian thrown)Austria-Hungry declares war on SerbiaRussia (allied with Serbia) declares war on Austria-HungryGermany (allied with Austria-Hungry) declares war on Russia first, then FranceWhen German troops cross Belgium to get to France, Great Britain (allied with Belgium) declares war on Germany
7 NationalismNationalism→ deep devotion to one’s nation; can serve as a unifying force within a countryCan also cause intense competition among nations, with each seeking to overpower the otherFrance: longed to regain its position as Europe’s leading power; wanted to recover provinces lost to Germany in Franco-Prussian War 1870 (Alsace & Lorraine)Germany: Proud of empire’s new military & industrial might
8 Nationalism Russia: Russian duty to lead & defend all Slavs Balkans: Rising nationalism in multinational empires (Austria-Hungary & Ottoman Empire) “Balkan Powder Keg”Serbia- hoped to absorb Slavic population on the Balkan Peninsula-Russia supportedAustria-Hungary→ opposed it, fearing that efforts to form a Slavic state would stir rebellion amongst its own Slavic population
9 Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
10 Imperialism~ European powers continued to compete for colonization in Africa and Asia…Push for imperialism often pushed European nations to the brink or warsense of rivalry and mistrust of one another continued to deepen
12 ASSASSINATION A Shot Rings Throughout Europe: ~ Amidst all this turmoil in Europe, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, visit Sarajevo, the capitol of Bosnia to inspect army maneuvers…June 28, 1914→ after escaping an attempt on their life through a bomb…the couple can’t escape death twice and were shot deadGavrilo Princip→ 19-year old Serbian assassinMember of the Black Hand→ secret society committed to ridding Bosnia of Austrian ruleOn June 28th, 1914, while riding in the motorcade through the streets of Sarajevo, Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie were shot and killed by Gavrilo Princip -- one of seven young Bosnians and Black Hand recruits. The assassination provided 'justification' for Austria to take hard action against Serbia. Throughout the month of July, 1914, the Austro-Serbian situation quickly escalated to include the Eruopean world powers -- resulting in world war.Franz Ferdinand was buried in a crypt beneath the chapel of his castle, Artstetten, instead of the customary burial place of the Hapsburgs, Capuchin Crypt, in Vienna.
16 *The countries of Europe followed through on their pledges to support one another. As a result, nearly all of Europe soon joined what would be the largest, most destructive war the world has seen yet.