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Russian Revolution Objectives Who was Czar Nicholas II? Russo-Japanese War’s effect on Russia Failure of the Duma Bloody Sunday Economic, Political and.

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Presentation on theme: "Russian Revolution Objectives Who was Czar Nicholas II? Russo-Japanese War’s effect on Russia Failure of the Duma Bloody Sunday Economic, Political and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Russian Revolution

3 Objectives Who was Czar Nicholas II? Russo-Japanese War’s effect on Russia Failure of the Duma Bloody Sunday Economic, Political and Social Causes of the Russian Revolution

4 What is the Russian Revolution? Term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union The Tsar was overthrown and replaced by a provisional government in the 1st revolution of February In the second revolution, during October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik (Communist) government.

5 Czar Nicholas II ( ) Last Czar of Russia Nicholas II was a harsh, yet weak ruler 4

6 Weakness of Tsar Nicholas II He was an absolute monarch, meaning that he had total power in Russia. Was a weak man. He used his secret police, the Okrana, to persecute opponents. Books and newspapers were censored. The Church supported the Tsar – the ‘Little Father of the Russian people’. The Tsar’s undemocratic government was a major cause of the revolution.

7 The Romanov Family How was Russia governed? Tsar; Romanov family since 1613 Nobles and Clergy: Landowning class Serfs: 90%, lived in 750,000 small villages No political parties No legislator No constitution

8 Alexander III Nicholas II OlgaMarie Alexandra III, wife of Nicholas TatianaAnastasiaAlexie

9 Russian Government Before Revolution Monarchy: The Czar-Until 1905, Czar's powers were unlimited. Russia had no constitution No political party system to check the Czar's power Had strong secret police which terrorized the people. Sharp class divisions existed between nobility and peasants. Peasants were landless. Czar did not resolve complaints of peasants and workers. 8

10 Russo-Japanese War ( ) Dispute with Japan over Manchuria, which was located in North East ChinaDispute with Japan over Manchuria, which was located in North East China 9

11 Leading to Revolution Russo-Japanese War ( ) Result of increasingly expansionist Russian foreign policy in the East Intended as a way to increase the prestige of the autocracy at home and abroad, but resulted in a humiliating defeat for Russia. This war marked the first time any Asian power had defeated a European power in a real war. Embarrassing, leadership blamed With the defeat, Japan emerged as a major threat to Russian interests in the east and, in Russia, even moderates lost confidence in the old regime. Poverty on the rise

12 Russo-Japanese War ends Treaty of Portsmouth 5 September 1905 –Japan: south Sakhalin, Korea, Port Arthur –Russia: evacuate Manchuria (but no indemnity) Casualties: –Japanese dead: 80,000 (in combat 47,000; of disease 33,000) –Wounded: at least 100,000 –Russian dead: 60,000 (47,500 in battle; 12,500 of disease) –Wounded: 146,000 –Russia’s reputation as Great Power First Asian victory over European power, though at great sacrifice.

13 Failure of the Duma In 1905 Russia lost a war with Japan. This defeat caused strikes in the Russian cities, the Tsar nearly lost control. Nicholas II offered to call a Duma, or parliament, with free elections. This was accepted by the demonstrators. When the Duma met, it criticized the Tsar and demanded changes. The Duma was dismissed and new elections, controlled by the Tsar, were called. It became clear that the Duma would be shut down if it criticized the Tsar. As long as the Tsar had control of the army, his power could not be broken.

14 Bloody Sunday Czarist troops open fire on a peaceful demonstration of workers in St Petersburg. January 9, 1905 Peaceful marchers in St. Petersburg carried a petition to Tsar Nicholas II asking for: –higher wages –Get out of the war –a shorter work day –better working conditions –a legislative assembly, –universal manhood suffrage In reaction, Nicholas II ordered his guards to fire into the unarmed crowd; when news of 96 dead and hundreds more wounded escaped, public opinion almost universally turned against the old regime.

15 Bloody Sunday, January, 9 th 1905 About 300,000 people 1000 died, some shot, some trampled.

16 Bloody Sunday (1905) 15

17 What were the political groups struggling for? Largely supportive of the Tsar Generations of repression and suffering left intellectual groups seeking change Non-Russian minorities (Poles, Jews, Finns, Ukrainians) wanted to free themselves from tsar Groups roughly divided into two categories: Liberal Reformers Socialists

18 Revolution of 1905 Began in St. Petersburg in January when troops fired on crowd of workers marching to petition Czar Nicholas II. This “bloody Sunday” was followed by series of strikes, riots, assassinations, naval mutinies, and peasant outbreaks. 17

19 Revolution of 1905 These disorders, coupled with defeat by Japan, revealed corruption and incompetence of czarist regime, and forced government to establish the Duma, or assembly, elected by limited franchise. 18

20 Leading to Revolution 1905 October General Strike sweeps Russia which ends when the Tsar promises a constitution December In response to the suppression of the St Petersburg Soviet, the Moscow Soviet organizes a disastrous insurrection that the government suppresses after five days 1906 The promised parliament, the Duma, is dissolved when it produces an anti government majority A new wave of workers unrest ends with the outbreak of the First World War

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22 Factors that led to the Russian revolution in The weakness of Tsar Nicholas II The discontent of the peasants The discontent of the workers Opposition of the Communists The failure of the Duma Russian failures in the First World War The February Revolution 1917 Rasputin and scandal

23 The discontent of the Workers Industrialisation began much later in Russia than in Western Europe. Huge iron foundries, textile factories and engineering firms were set up. Most were owned by the government or foreigners, and were located in the big cities such as St Petersburg or Moscow. By % of Russians were workers living in cities. Working conditions in the new industrial towns were hard. Pay was very low. Although strikes and demonstrations were illegal, they often took place. Strikers were frequently shot by the Tsar’s soldiers or secret police. ‘The whole day we pour out our blood and sweat. Every minute we are exposed to danger.’ Union leaflet 1898

24 The discontent of the Peasants Russia was a rural society with over 90% of the people being poor peasants. Until 1861 the peasants had belonged to their masters, who could buy and sell them like animals. When the peasants were freed in 1861 they were given small amounts of land for which they had to pay back the government. As a result most farmers were in absolute poverty. Agriculture was in desperate need of modernisation. In contrast, a small number of upper-class people held most of the wealth and power. This aristocracy had large town houses and country estates. Very often the peasants do not have enough allotment land. They cannot feed themselves, clothe themselves, heat their homes, keep their tools and livestock, secure seed for sowing and lastly pay their taxes. Police report into country conditions 1905

25 Russian failures in the First World War In the first few months of the First World War, Russia fought better than had been expected. Russian forces attacked Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1914 and were only pushed back after fierce fighting at the battle of Tannenberg. In 1915, Tsar Nicholas II assumed personal command of the Russian armed forces. This was a risky policy; any defeats would be blamed on him. As it turned out the Tsar was a poor commander. The Russian army lost confidence in the Tsar after a string of serious defeats. The Russian soldiers, poorly trained and equipped, lacking in basic items such as rifles and ammunition, suffered from lowering morale. Thousands of men deserted. Without the support of the army, the Tsar’s position became increasingly precarious.

26 Rasputin and Scandal While Tsar Nicholas II was absent commanding Russian forces during the First World War, he left the day to day running of Russia in the control of his wife Tsarina Alexandra. Alexandra came increasingly under the influence of Gregory Rasputin, a ‘holy man’ who appeared to be able to heal the haemophilia of Prince Alexis, the heir to the throne. Rasputin used his power to win effective control of the Russian government. But this aroused envy and he was murdered in Rasputin’s influence undermined the prestige of the royal family, but his murder came too late to save them.

27 The opposition of the Communists Many middle-class Liberals and Social Revolutionaries (who supported the peasants) opposed the rule of the Tsar, but the most revolutionary were the Social Democrats or Communists. The Communists believed in the ideas of Karl Marx. Marx claimed that history is all about the struggles between the classes. He claimed that the capitalist system was unfair because the factory owners (bourgeois) made profits from the toils of the workers (proletariat). Marx predicted that the proletariat would violently overthrow the bosses and take control of the country on behalf of the people. The Russian Communists were divided into the Bolsheviks led by Lenin and the Mensheviks led by Trotsky. Lenin believed that the small party of Bolsheviks should seize power and control Russia on behalf of the people. Before 1917 Lenin and many of the other Communist leaders were in exile abroad, plotting to bring about a revolution in Russia

28 The February Revolution 1917 Russia fared so badly in the First World War there was a spontaneous uprising against the Tsar in February This was sparked off by food riots, poor working conditions and the failure to win the war. The Russian army refused to shoot at the demonstrators and joined forces with them. Lenin, in exile in Switzerland, raced to Petrograd so that he could attempt to seize control of the revolution. In March 1917, without the support of the army, the Tsar was forced to abdicate and a Provisional Government was set up under Prince Lvov and Kerensky. Lenin believed that this new government was weak and would not impose communism on the Russian people. In October 1917, Lenin led an armed uprising against the Provisional Government. His aim was to take control of Russia and turn it in to a communist country.

29 The discontent of the Workers Industrialisation began much later in Russia than in Western Europe. Huge iron foundries, textile factories and engineering firms were set up. Most were owned by the government or foreigners, and were located in the big cities such as St Petersburg or Moscow. By % of Russians were workers living in cities. Working conditions in the new industrial towns were hard. Pay was very low. Although strikes and demonstrations were illegal, they often took place. Strikers were frequently shot by the Tsar’s soldiers or secret police. ‘The whole day we pour out our blood and sweat. Every minute we are exposed to danger.’ Union leaflet 1898

30 The discontent of the Peasants Russia was a rural society with over 90% of the people being poor peasants. Until 1861 the peasants had belonged to their masters, who could buy and sell them like animals. When the peasants were freed in 1861 they were given small amounts of land for which they had to pay back the government. As a result most farmers were in absolute poverty. Agriculture was in desperate need of modernisation. In contrast, a small number of upper-class people held most of the wealth and power. This aristocracy had large town houses and country estates. Very often the peasants do not have enough allotment land. They cannot feed themselves, clothe themselves, heat their homes, keep their tools and livestock, secure seed for sowing and lastly pay their taxes. Police report into country conditions 1905

31 Russian failures in the First World War In the first few months of the First World War, Russia fought better than had been expected. Russian forces attacked Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1914 and were only pushed back after fierce fighting at the battle of Tannenberg. In 1915, Tsar Nicholas II assumed personal command of the Russian armed forces. This was a risky policy; any defeats would be blamed on him. As it turned out the Tsar was a poor commander. The Russian army lost confidence in the Tsar after a string of serious defeats. The Russian soldiers, poorly trained and equipped, lacking in basic items such as rifles and ammunition, suffered from lowering morale. Thousands of men deserted. Without the support of the army, the Tsar’s position became increasingly precarious.

32 Rasputin and Scandal While Tsar Nicholas II was absent commanding Russian forces during the First World War, he left the day to day running of Russia in the control of his wife Tsarina Alexandra. Alexandra came increasingly under the influence of Gregory Rasputin, a ‘holy man’ who appeared to be able to heal the haemophilia of Prince Alexis, the heir to the throne. Rasputin used his power to win effective control of the Russian government. But this aroused envy and he was murdered in Rasputin’s influence undermined the prestige of the royal family, but his murder came too late to save them.

33 The opposition of the Communists Many middle-class Liberals and Social Revolutionaries (who supported the peasants) opposed the rule of the Tsar, but the most revolutionary were the Social Democrats or Communists. The Communists believed in the ideas of Karl Marx. Marx claimed that history is all about the struggles between the classes. He claimed that the capitalist system was unfair because the factory owners (bourgeois) made profits from the toils of the workers (proletariat). Marx predicted that the proletariat would violently overthrow the bosses and take control of the country on behalf of the people. The Russian Communists were divided into the Bolsheviks led by Lenin and the Mensheviks led by Trotsky. Lenin believed that the small party of Bolsheviks should seize power and control Russia on behalf of the people. Before 1917 Lenin and many of the other Communist leaders were in exile abroad, plotting to bring about a revolution in Russia

34 The February Revolution 1917 Russia fared so badly in the First World War there was a spontaneous uprising against the Tsar in February This was sparked off by food riots, poor working conditions and the failure to win the war. The Russian army refused to shoot at the demonstrators and joined forces with them. Lenin, in exile in Switzerland, raced to Petrograd so that he could attempt to seize control of the revolution. In March 1917, without the support of the army, the Tsar was forced to abdicate and a Provisional Government was set up under Prince Lvov and Kerensky. Lenin believed that this new government was weak and would not impose communism on the Russian people. In October 1917, Lenin led an armed uprising against the Provisional Government. His aim was to take control of Russia and turn it in to a communist country.

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36 Russia and World War I Russia declares war on Austria- Hungary Rationing leads to starvation War becomes unpopular Nicholas II leaves St. Petersburg for war front in (Hopes to boost morale) 35

37 WWI Patriotic gesture Nicholas II goes to the front to personally take charge 1915 over 2 million Russians die on the front Soldiers do not have sufficient rifles, ammunition or medical care While Nicholas II at front, he leaves domestic affairs to wife, Alexandra

38 Russia in Dire Straights Repeated military reverses, (Ex.=Battle of Tannenberg) Acute food shortages, Appointment of inept ministers, Lack of industrial production for war, And intense suffering of the civilian population create revolutionary climate by end of

39 Rasputin 38

40 “Mad Monk” Alexandra relied on a “holy man” Rasputin for advise on ruling Russia Rasputin wasn’t trusted by the government or people and had many enemies

41 Side Note: Cult of Rasputin Charismatic figure at court of Czar “Holy man” who helped Czar’s family deal with hemophilia Had influence over Czar’s wife When Czar goes to war front, Rasputin gets supporters in positions of power who are corrupt and unqualified Attempt to poison him unsuccessful. Then he was shot, and thrown into a river. His body was later buried, then dug up and burned by protesters during March Revolution. 40

42 March Revolution Marchers through the streets shouting “Bread, bread, bread” Troops refused to fire on demonstrators Czar abdicated (resigned) March 15 th 1917 Duma set up provisional government eventually led by Alexander Karensky Russia continued in WWI Revolutionary socialists plotted own course. Many set up Soviets, councils of workers and soldiers

43 October (Bolshevik) Revolution Lead by Vladimir Lenin “Peace, Land, and Bread” Won support of people (especially peasants) 42

44 1918 March 3 rd 1918 Bolsheviks accept Treaty of Brest ‑ Litovsk, ending WWI with Germany. 43

45 White Armies (Supported Royal Family and Menshevik troops) attack the Reds (Bolsheviks) from all directions (with the support of Czech, Japanese, British, French, and American forces). Allied will to continue fighting after WWI is limited. Forces leave occupied western Russia by end of year Reds defeat Whites 44

46 Rule of Lenin Economic Reforms included the New Economic Plan (NEP) –Allowed some capitalist ventures –State controlled large industries and banks –Peasants controlled small plots of land and their own crops Political Reforms -Bolshevik party became Communist Party -Russia becomes the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 45

47 Communism A Form of Socialism –Central Planning of the Economy by the State Government (Communist Party) makes decisions on individual jobs and pay 46

48 1924 Lenin Dies Power Vacuum Leon Trotsky vs. Joseph Stalin Stalin takes control Decides to create a totalitarian state 47

49 Quick Timeline Czar abdicated (resigned) March 15 th Duma set up provisional government eventually led by Alexander (after Czar abdicates March 1917) October (Bolshevik) Revolution led by Lenin “Peace, Land and Bread” March 3 rd Bolsheviks accept Treaty of Brest ‑ Litovsk, ending WWI with Germany Red Armies (Bolsheviks) vs. White Armies (Supported Royal Family and Mensheviks) Red Armies defeat White Armies Lenin in Power: NEP, Bolshevik  Communist Party, Russia becomes Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Lenin dies, Trotsky vs. Stalin  Stalin wins= Totalitarian state

50 Civil War Lenin signed Treaty of Brest Litovsk with Germany. Gave up territory and population Civil war for 3 years Whites counter revolutionaries loyal to Czar Greens anarchists who favored socialism without strong central government National groups Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania able to break free National groups that were unable to break free

51 Allied Invasion Japan seized land in East Asia Britain, France and U.S. helped Whites because they wanted Russia to continue in war against Germany Allied attempts failed and led to long term communist distrust of the West


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