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Henry VIII – James I Tudor England. Henry VIII Born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia at Greenwich. The third child of Henry VII and Elizabeth of.

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Presentation on theme: "Henry VIII – James I Tudor England. Henry VIII Born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia at Greenwich. The third child of Henry VII and Elizabeth of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Henry VIII – James I Tudor England

2 Henry VIII Born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia at Greenwich. The third child of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. His grandparents were King Edward IV of England and Queen Elizabeth Woodville. Only three of Henry VIII's six siblings: Arthur (the Prince of Wales), Margaret and Mary, survived infancy.

3 Already as a child: appointed Constable of Dover Castle, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, created Duke of York, appointed Earl Marshal of England, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland  His elder brother Arthur married the Spanish Catherine of Aragon but died a couple months later. At the age of eleven, Henry, Duke of York, became heir-apparent to the Throne. He was also created Prince of Wales.

4 Henry VII demanded an alliance between England and Spain through a marriage between Henry, Prince of Wales, and Catherine. Since the Prince of Wales was supposed to marry his brother's widow, he first had to get a dispensation from the Pope. Henry became King after his father’s death in Henry married Catharina 11’Th of June Cathatinas first pregnancy ended in miscarriage in In January 1511 she gave birth to a son that died two month later.

5 King Henry became attracted to the young Anne Boleyn, and at the same time infuriated with Catherine’s inability to produce a healthy male heir. He asked the Church to annul their marriage. The pope refused the king’s request in fear that It would anger the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, who was Catherine’s nephew. The Pope went on to excommunicate Henry in July Considerable religious upheaval followed. The Act of Supremacy 1534 declared that the king is head of the English church. This was the beginning of the English Reformation.

6 Rejecting the decisions of the Pope, Parliament validated the marriage between Henry and Anne with the Act of Succession In 1536, Queen Anne began to lose Henry's favour. After the Princess Elizabeth's birth, Queen Anne had two pregnancies that ended in either miscarriage or stillbirth. Henry VIII had begun to turn his attentions to another lady of his court, Jane Seymour. In May 1536, the Court condemned Anne and her brother to death. Only days after Anne's execution in 1536, Henry married Jane Seymour. Jane gave birth to a son, the Prince Edward, in 1537, and died two weeks later

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8 Major Acts At about the same time as his marriage to Jane Seymour, Henry granted his assent to the Laws in Wales Act 1535, uniting England and Wales into one nation. During the English Reformation Henry continued persecute his religious opponents and the Dissolution of Monasteries. In 1536, an uprising called Pilgrimage of Grace broke out in Northern England. To calm the rebellious Roman Catholics, Henry agreed to allow Parliament to address their concerns. Furthermore, he agreed to grant a general mercy to all those involved.

9 He kept neither promise, and a second uprising occurred in As a result, the leaders of the rebellion were convicted of treason and executed. In 1539, England's remaining monasteries were all dissolved, and their property transferred to the Crown. Abbots and priors lost their seats in the House of Lords; only archbishops and bishops stayed. The Lords Spiritual, were for the first time outnumbered by the Lords Temporal.

10 Henry's mistresses Historians are only sure of the names of two of Henry's mistresses: Bessie Blount and Mary Boleyn (Anne's sister). Several others: Jane Popicourt, in 1510 a Frenchwoman at the court a mistress of the kidnapped Duc de Longueville Lady Anne Stafford, in 1514 Margaret (Madge) Shelton, in There are also references to a lady he housed in a manor house (unknown year), an 'unknown lady' in 1534 and a lady from Tournai, in his excursions into France in 1513.

11 Henry's innovative court Henry’s court was a centre of artistic innovation. The discovery of America or "The New World" set the stage for Henry's innovative attitude. Henry was among the first European rulers to learn about the true geography of the world, a revolutionary discovery. In 1507, the cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann published the first "modern" map of the world, the first map to accurately illustrate the American Continent and a separate Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, a radical thought for the time.

12 More wives Henry wanted to get married again. Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex suggested Anne, the sister of the Protestant Duke of Cleves, who was seen as an important ally in case of a Roman Catholic attack on England. Hans Holbein the Younger was sent to Cleves to paint a portrait of Anne for the King. After regarding Holbein's flattering portrayal, Henry agreed to wed Anne. On Anne's arrival in England, Henry is said to have found her very ugly. Nevertheless, he married her on 6 January 1540.

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14 Henry wanted to end the marriage, not only because of his personal feelings but also because of political considerations. The Duke of Cleves had become engaged in a dispute with the Holy Roman Emperor. On 28 July 1540 Henry married the young Catherine Howard, Anne Boleyn's first cousin. Thomas Cranmer, who was opposed to the powerful Catholic Howard family, brought evidence of Queen Catherine's affairs with other men to the King. Catherine's marriage was annulled shortly before her execution.

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16 Death Catherine Parr was the last of his six wives Later in life, Henry was grossly overweight, with a waist measurement of 137 cm, and possibly suffered from gout. Henry's increased size dates from an accident in He suffered a thigh wound which not only prevented him from taking exercise and may have indirectly led to his death, which occurred on 28 January 1547.

17 King Edward VI

18 Born: 12 October 1537 Hampton Court Palace Died: 6 July 1553 Greenwich Palace (15 years old)

19 King Edward VI Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547, when Edward was only 9 years old. Edward VI was crowned as king at Westminster Abbey on 20 February 1547 Reign: 28 January July 1553 –From the age of 9 to his death at the age of 15

20 King Edward VI  Edward's reign was marked by increasingly harsh Protestant reforms, the loss of control of Scotland, and an economic downturn. A period of social unrest begun earlier intensified during his rule, and conflicts with the French increased.  As he grew up he noticed that there were not as many people from a poorer background attending church so reigned the country by removing the most ornate ornaments from the churches; this resulted in King Edward bringing himself closer to his people through the use of religion.

21 King Edward VI Edward VI's uncle, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, ruled England in the name of his nephew as Lord Protector from 1547 to Henry VIII’s will named sixteen executors, who were to act as a Council of Regency until Edward VI achieved majority at the age of eighteen.  Edward's entire rule was mediated through a council of regency as he never reached maturity.

22 King Edward VI Edward VI was England's first ruler who was Protestant at the time of his ascension to the throne. Many Catholic rites were replaced with Protestant ones during the reign of Edward VI One of the most notable was Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer, which was published in 1549 to replace the old liturgical books in Latin.

23 King Edward VI Inflation and the cost of war combined to double prices from 1547 to On 8 August, taking advantage of internal strife, the French, under Henry II, formally declared war on England. The Duke of Somerset became extremely unpopular, even among his own Council. In October 1549 he was deposed and sent under arrest to the Tower of London by John Dudley, Earl of Warwick

24 King Edward VI The Duke of Somerset became extremely unpopular and in October 1549 he was deposed and sent under arrest to the Tower of London by John Dudley, Earl of Warwick John Dudley, Earl of Warwick did not make himself Lord Protector, and even encouraged Edward VI into declaring his majority as soon as he was sixteen. Unlike Somerset, Warwick was a man of action who was full of ambition to officially install and enforce an inflexible form of Protestantism and enrich himself with land and power.

25 King Edward VI The rise of the Earl of Warwick (later Duke of Northumberland) was accompanied by the fall of Catholicism in England –Use of the Book of Common Prayer in all Church services was more strictly enforced –all official editions of the Bible were accompanied by anti-Catholic annotations. –Catholic symbols in churches were desecrated by mobs –the Ordinal of 1550 replaced the divine ordination of priests with a government-run appointment system

26 King Edward VI The first symptoms of tuberculosis were manifest in January 1553 and by May it was obvious that his condition was fatal. Edward was enough the master of his own destiny to have concerns about the succession addressed Having been brought up a Protestant, he had no desire to be succeeded by his older half-sister and devout Catholic, Mary.

27 King Edward VI  When it became clear that Edward's life was to be a short one, the king's advisors persuaded him to attempt to exclude his two half sisters, the devout Catholic Mary and moderate Protestant Elizabeth, from the line of succession to the throne in order to put the Lady Jane Grey, the solidly Protestant daughter-in-law of the chief Regent, next in line to succeed the king.

28 King Edward VI The Duke of Northumberland then foolishly attempted to rule through the Duchess of Suffolk's daughter, the Lady Jane Grey. Jane was married off to the Duke of Northumberland's younger son, Guilford Dudley Northumberland plotted to have his daughter-in- law, the Lady Jane, placed next in line to succeed Edward

29 King Edward VI The first draft of Edward VI’s will excluded Mary, Elizabeth, the Duchess of Suffolk and the Lady Jane from the line of succession on the theory that no woman could rule England. The Crown was to be left to the Lady Jane's heirs-male. This plan, however, was not to Northumberland's liking (probably because Lady Jane had no male heirs at this time, having been married only about a month before)

30 King Edward VI The draft was changed to leave the Crown to Jane and her heirs-male. Mary and Elizabeth were excluded because they were officially illegitimate  As Edward VI lay dying, the Duke of Northumberland (according to legend) symbolically stole the crown from him and gave it to his daughter-in-law, the Lady Jane.

31 King Edward VI Edward VI died at Greenwich Palace on 6 July 1553, either of tuberculosis, arsenic poisoning, or syphilis. His last words were said to have been: "Oh my Lord God, defend this realm from papistry and maintain their true religion." He was buried in Henry VII Lady Chapel at Westminster Abbey by Thomas Cranmer with Protestant rites on 9 August, while Mary had Mass said for his soul in the Tower

32 King Edward VI Jane's proclamation was revoked as an act done under coercion; her succession was deemed unlawful. Lady Jane was Queen for only nine days, during that time reigning in name only, Thus, Edward VI's de jure successor was Mary I (1553–58), but his de facto successor was Jane.

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34 Queen Mary I

35 Also known as Mary Tudor or Bloody Mary Born: 18 February 1516 Died: 17 November 1558 Reign: 19 July 1553–17 November 1558 Mary became Queen at the age of 37 and died 42 years old Coronation: 1 October 1553

36 Queen Mary I Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de jure) or 19 July 1553 (de facto) until her death. Mary, the fourth and penultimate monarch of the Tudor dynasty Her mother was Catherine of Aragon

37 Queen Mary I  Mary was deemed illegitimate and her place in the line of succession, as well as the title princess, was transferred to her half-sister, the future Elizabeth I when Henry broke with the Church –Mary was expelled from Court, –Her servants were dismissed from her service –She was forced to serve as a lady-in-waiting to Elizabeth. –She was not permitted to see her mother Catherine –She was not permitted to attend her mothers funeral in 1536.

38 Queen Mary I In 1544, through an Act of Parliament, Henry returned Mary and Elizabeth to the line of succession after Edward. Both women, however, remained legally illegitimate. In 1547, Henry died and was succeeded by Edward VI

39 Queen Mary I  When Mary, who had remained faithful to the Catholic Church, asked to be allowed to worship in private in her own chapel, she was ordered to stop. After appealing to her cousin Charles V, who threatened to go to war with England, she was allowed to worship privately. Religious differences would continue to be a problem between Mary and Edward

40 Queen Mary I On 19 July 1553, Jane's accession proclamation was deemed to have been made under coercion and was revoked. Mary was proclaimed queen in her place and her reign is considered to have begun on this day. On 3 August 1553, with support for Jane evaporating, Mary rode into London triumphant and unchallenged, with her half-sister Elizabeth at her side. Mary's first act of Parliament retroactively validated Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, and legitimated herself

41 Queen Mary I Queen Mary I married the 11 years younger Philip II Although Mary enjoyed tremendous popular support and sympathy for her mistreatment during the earliest parts of her reign, she lost almost all of it after marrying Philip.

42 Queen Mary I Philip II (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King of England (as King-consort of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, King of Portugal and the Algarves (as Philip I) from 1580 until 1598 and King of Chile from 1554 until 1556.

43 Queen Mary I During her reign, Mary's weak health led her to suffer two false pregnancies. After such a delusion in 1558, Mary decreed in her will that her husband Philip should be the regent during the minority of her child. No child, however, was born, and Mary died at the age of 42, most probably of ovarian cancer, at St. James's Palace on 17 November

44 Queen Mary I She is remembered for returning England from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism. To this end, she had almost three hundred religious dissenters executed; as a consequence, she is often known as Bloody Mary. Her religious policies were in many cases reversed by her successor and half-sister, Elizabeth I (1558–1603). Edward's religious laws were abolished by Mary's first Parliament and numerous Protestant leaders were executed in the so-called Marian Persecutions

45 Queen Mary I Mary did not have many successes; she was, however, known for her "common touch". She would wear a country's national dress when meeting its ambassador, and many of those who waited upon her personally later expressed great love and loyalty to her.

46 Queen Mary I The persecution of Protestants earned Mary the appellation "Bloody Mary" although many historians believe Mary does not deserve all the blame that has been cast upon her. During Mary's five- year reign, 283 individuals were burnt at the stake, twice as many as had suffered the same fate during the previous century- and-a-half of English history

47 ELIZABETH I Elizabeth was born in the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, on September 7, Upon her birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England despite having an older half sister

48  Elizabeth was the only surviving child of King Henry VIII of England by his second wife, Anne Boleyn, Marchioness of Pembroke  In terms of personality, Elizabeth was resourceful, determined, and exceedingly intelligent.  She loved learning for its own sake. Like her mother and father, she was flirtatious and charismatic.

49  It is believed that Seymour made advances towards Elizabeth while she lived in his household. There, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham.  She came to speak and read six languages: her native English, as well as French, Italian, Spanish, Greek, and Latin. Under the influence of Catherine Parr and Ascham, Elizabeth was raised a Protestant.

50  In November 1558, upon Queen Mary's death, Elizabeth ascended the throne. She was far more popular than Mary, and it is said that after the death of her half-sister the people rejoiced in the streets  Legend has it Elizabeth was sitting beneath an oak tree reading the Greek Bible at Hatfield when she was informed of her succession to the throne. As it was November and winter, it was unlikely Elizabeth would have been quietly reading but perhaps enjoying a brisk walk.

51  Elizabeth's coronation was on 15 January She was 25 years old  Communion with the Catholic Church had been reinstated under Mary I, but was ended by Elizabeth.

52 the government entered two new bills into the Houses — the Act of Supremacy and the Act of Uniformity. The Act of Supremacy confirmed Elizabeth as Supreme Governor of the Church of England, as opposed to the Supreme Head.

53  Governor was a suitably equivocal phrasing that made Elizabeth head of the church without ever saying she was, important because in the sixteent century, it was felt that women could not rule a church  Elizabeth never changed the Religious Settlement despite Protestant pressure (previously thought to originate from the Puritan choir) to do so and it is in fact the 1559 Settlement that forms much of the basis of today's Church of England.

54  At the end of 1562, Elizabeth fell ill with smallpox, but later recovered. In 1563, alarmed by the Queen's near-fatal illness, Parliament asked that she marry or nominate an heir to prevent civil war upon her death. She refused to do either,

55 The Queen's health remained good until the fall of 1602, when a series of losses among her remaining friends appeared to throw her into a melancholy. In her depression, she was lethargic and silent, quite unlike her usual brisk manner. Her courtiers anxiously tried to cheer her, but as she admonished her godson, John Harington  On March 21, 1603, the Lord Admiral finally persuaded the Queen to go to bed. They had to saw the Coronation Ring off her finger where it had grown into the flesh. She could no longer speak

56 It is sometimes claimed that Elizabeth named James her heir on her deathbed. According to one story, when asked whom she would name her heir, she replied, "Who could that be but my cousin Scotland?" According to another, she said, "Who but a King could succeed a Queen?" Finally, a third legend suggests that she remained silent until her death.

57 JAMES I  James was the only child of Mary I, Queen of Scots and of her second husband, Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany, more commonly known as Lord Darnley

58  James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, and as the eldest son of the monarch and heir-apparent, automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He received the name Charles James, the first name in honour of his godfather Charles IX of France, thus becoming the first British monarch to have more than one forename.

59  was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland. He was the first to style himself King of Great Britain. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567; from the 'Union of the Crowns', he ruled in England and Ireland as James I, from 24 March 1603 until his death

60 In 1586, James VI and Elizabeth I became allies under the Treaty of Berwick. James sought to remain in the favour of the unmarried Queen of England, as he was a potential successor to her Crown James managed to reduce significantly the influence of the Roman Catholic nobles in Scotland.

61  He further endeared himself to Protestants by marrying Anne of Denmark and Norway—a princess from a Protestant country and daughter of Frederick II of Denmark and Norway— by proxy in 1589  The couple produced eight living children and one who was stillborn

62  James became obsessed with the threat that witches and witchcraft might pose to him and his country. During this period, he wrote a treatise on demonology, as a result of which hundreds of Scottish men and women were put to death for witchcraft, their bodies later being found in what was then called Nor Loch, now Princes Street Gardens in Edinburgh

63  James lapsed into senility during the last year of his reign. Real power passed to Charles and to the Duke of Buckingham  James died at Theobalds House in 1625 of probably brought upon by kidney failure and stroke

64 The ‘’King James Bible’’ became the standard edition of the Bible throughout the English- speaking world, replacing the Great Bible of Henry VIII, the Geneva Bible and other translations. The beauty of its language makes it stand as one of the greatest works of English literature. The king also designed the British flag in 1603 by combining England's red cross of St. George with Scotland's white cross of St. Andrew. Some conclude that the term Union Jack may have come from James' name, Jac meaning Jacobus which is Latin for James, i.e. King Jac's Union


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