3 Government in the Middle Ages Roman Empire had a central government.After Rome fell, Europe had dozens of little kingdoms.Lots of fighting between kingdoms.Lots of attacks from Vikings, Magyars (from East Asia) and Muslims.A new way evolved ...
4 FeudalismFeudalism was the political and military system of the Middle Ages.In a feudal society, land is exchanged for military service and loyalty.The ownership of land was the basis or power.NEW PAGE:Title: Feudalism in the Middle AgesCopy this definition:Feudalism is a political system where land – and therefore money and power – is exchanged for military service and loyalty.
5 Feudal Pyramid of Power Plain slide without animations to print for a poster.Feudal Pyramid of Power
6 At the topThe King owned all of the land. Depending on how much he liked them, he gave land to the Nobles.William the Conqueror
7 Feudal Pyramid of Power KINGLANDNOBLESFeudal Pyramid of Power
8 Nobles Lords and Ladies, Dukes, Earls. Usually related to, or mates with, the King.They didn’t get the Land for free: they were required to give money and soldiers (knights) if the King needed them to fight a war.
9 Feudal Pyramid of Power KINGMONEY AND KNIGHTSLANDNOBLESFeudal Pyramid of Power
10 KnightsNobles needed trained soldiers to defend castles and to give the King when he asked for them.Knights most important, highly skilled soldiersMounted knights in heavy armor best defenders
11 Feudal Pyramid of Power KINGMONEY AND KNIGHTSLANDPROTECTION and MILITARY SERVICENOBLESKNIGHTSFeudal Pyramid of Power
12 Knights BUT Being a knight is expensive; weapons, armor, horsesNobles usually paid with land.Land given to knight for service was called a fiefAnyone accepting fief was called a vassalA vassal had to obey his Lord and fight for him when required.
13 Feudal Pyramid of Power KINGMONEY AND KNIGHTSLANDPROTECTION and MILITARY SERVICELAND (fief)NOBLESKNIGHTSvassalsFeudal Pyramid of Power
14 Many Lords Person could be both lord, vassal Some knights with large fiefs gave small pieces of land to other knightsOne knight could serve many lordsEveryone’s supposed to be loyal to the King. Didn’t always work out that way.
15 Peasants Everyday people – peasants - were frightened. They turned to landowners for protection.Peasants offered their labor in exchange for protection.These peasants were called serfs.
16 Serfs A serf was “bound to the land.” He could not leave his lord’s land.He was not a slave because he could not be sold.But he was not free because he could not leave.He also needed permission to marry.
17 Feudal Pyramid of Power KINGMONEY AND KNIGHTSLANDPROTECTION and MILITARY SERVICELAND (fief)NOBLESLANDand protectionFOOD AND SERVICESKNIGHTSvassalsPEASANTSFeudal Pyramid of Power
18 ManorialismIn Modern times, when we say “Manor”, we mean this:
19 ManorialismBut in the Middle Ages, a Manor was more like a town or a large estate.Remember: a fief was all of a Lord’s land.The Manor was the part of the fief where the peasants farmed and lived.
20 Manorialism Copy this definition/notes into your packet of notes: Manorialism was the economic system of the Middle Ages.These days our economic system is called ‘Capitalism’.Manorialism is a self-sufficient economy; this means that everything that is necessary for life was created on the manor.
21 Manorialism Manors had some free people who rented land from lord Each manor included fortified house for noble family, village for peasants, serfsOthers included landowning peasants, skilled workers like blacksmiths, millersAlso had a priest for spiritual needs
22 Common Pasture (or "Green") PRINT this slide and distribute to students: have students colour the fields, buildings and roads, filling in the key. Also, have students fill in the labels.
24 The PeasantsAt the lowest level of society were the peasants, also called serfs or villeins.The lord offered his peasants protection in exchange for living and working on his land.
25 Hard Work & High TaxesPeasants worked hard to cultivate the land and produce the goods that the lord and his manor needed.They were heavily taxed and were required to relinquish much of what they harvested.
26 Serfs A serf was “bound to the land.” He could not leave his lord’s land.He was not a slave because he could not be sold.But he was not free because he could not leave.He also needed permission to marry.
29 fixing sheds, houses, fences Planting Weaving Ploughing Fertilising Repairingfixing sheds, houses, fencesPlantingWeavingPloughingFertilisingSowingWeedingPruningScaring BirdsShearingHarvestingGatheringTyingWinnowingMillingButcheringSalting/SmokingCollectingDiggingAs an added task, I had students research and describe what each of these things involved. My students are rural students and could identify all except winnowing.
30 Vocab Match Practice Quiz COPY the word and it’s correct definition into your book.serfA) a person who swears to be a fighter for a lord in exchange for land.feudalismB) the part of the fief in which villagers and peasants live (kind of like a small town)fiefC) the system which involves residents of a manor growing and making everything for themselves (being self sufficient)manorD) a peasant which is tied to the land (kind of like a slave)vassalE) the political system which William the Conqueror set up which involves exchanging land for service.manorialismF) Land given to Knights and Lords in exchange for loyalty and a promise to fight.
31 Feudal Pyramid of Power KINGKNIGHTSvassalsPEASANTSNOBLESMONEY AND KNIGHTSLANDPROTECTION and MILITARY SERVICELAND (fief)LANDand protectionFOOD AND SERVICESPlain slide without animations to print for a poster.Feudal Pyramid of Power
32 Friday: Open Note QuizMake sure to keep track of all of your notes and bring them back Friday!!! If not… you will regret it!!