31. What was a vassal?A Noble who served a lord of higher rank.
42. Describe the system of crop rotation used in the later Middle Ages, and explain how it increased the amount of food being grown.Peasants rotated the crops that were grown into 3 field each year the would rotate the crop grown in each field. Crops grew healthier and produced more because they were able to utilized mere land
63. Draw a chart to compare the duties and obligations. LordsKnightsSerfsGrant Vassal LandOffer vassal protectionServe in the Lord’s ArmyManaged small land holdingsWork the lord’s landGive parts of their crop yield back to the Lord
74. Explain the shift of power from kings to nobles during the Middle Ages. Europe had no central government, so nobles started to collect taxes and enforce laws.
85. How did an increase in trade lead to the growth of towns and cities? Trade brought more people to cities to live and work, and the cities grew and prosperity grew.
96. What were guilds and why were they important? Guilds were business groups organized by craftspeople. They set standards for quality, decided how goods were made, and set prices.