Presentation on theme: "TWI: Problem Solving - A Comprehensive Approach to TWI Implementation TWI Webinar November 17, 2009 Patrick Graupp TWI Senior Master Trainer."— Presentation transcript:
TWI: Problem Solving - A Comprehensive Approach to TWI Implementation TWI Webinar November 17, 2009 Patrick Graupp TWI Senior Master Trainer
TWI Problem Solving: Two Views Compared to Toyota Problem Solving – How do the two programs compare? – Answer: Come from the same roots The central focus of TWI-PS – Finding the “root cause” of the problem – Using JM, JI & JR as tools for solving the problem – Additional analysis tools and techniques
A Little Background TWI Service was closed down September, 1945 Lowell Mellen, TWI Representative from Cleveland, formed TWI, Inc. TWI, Inc. won contract to deliver TWI programs in Japan and began training in spring of 1951 TWI, Inc. created Problem Solving Training in 1956 at request of Japanese government
How Important Was TWI in Japan? “It is readily apparent to anyone who has been in close contact with Japanese Business and Industry that the Japanese are many, many years behind the West in their thinking about the problems of Organization and Management. In fact, many times it appears that they have done no thinking at all, at least, not logically.” TWI, Inc. Final Report, 1956, page 31
The Need for Problem Solving “This means that at all Supervisory levels below the very Top there is a reluctance to accept Responsibility for anything… so there is a constant crisis in waiting for someone to make a decision or come up with the answer to anything. The final result is that the average Japanese Supervisor is a very, very frustrated individual who hardly knows which way to turn.” TWI, Inc. Final Report, 1956, page 32
The Shoe is on the Other Foot “When G.M. collapsed last year and turned to the government for an emergency bailout, its century-old way of conducting business was laid bare, with all its flaws in plain sight. Decisions were made, if at all, at a glacial pace, bogged down by endless committees, reports and reviews that astonished members of President Obama’s auto task force.” New York Times, November 12, 2009
David Meier on Toyota PS Lean success is low because we typically go straight to the “answer” What’s missing is long term vision and strategy in solving problems Everyone jumps to the tactical: how to apply lean tools They skip the strategy for execution: our approach to things based on principles
Comparison of Two Methods Toyota Problem Solving Steps 1. Clarify the Problem 2. Break Down the Problem 3. Target Setting 4. Root Cause Analysis 5. Develop Countermeasures 6. See Countermeasures Through 7. Monitor Both Results and Process 8. Standardize Successful Processes TWI Problem Solving Steps 1.Isolate the Problem – State the problem – Give proof or evidence – Explore the cause – Draw conclusions 2.Prepare for Solution – JM, JI, JR Steps 1 & 2 3.Correct the Problem – JM, JI, JR Steps 3 & 4 4.Check and Evaluate Results
Basic Needs of Good Supervisors Work Responsibilities KNOWLEDGE SKILL Instructing Improving Methods Leading Safety
Supervisor's Responsibilities What supervisors are responsible for: – Quality – Production – Cost How they achieve those responsibilities: – Knowledge of work – Knowledge of responsibilities – Skill in instructing – Skill in leading – Skill in improving methods – Safety component to all the above needs
What is a Problem? A supervisor has a problem when the work assigned fails to produce the expected results. Standard—what should be happening Current Situation—what is actually happening Gap = Problem
Step 1 — Isolate the Problem 1. State the problem – Pick up current problems Problems up to now New problems breaking out Approaching problems – Look for and find problems Anticipate and foresee problems Discussion and review of records – Prioritize Importance, necessity, emergency level
Step 1 — Isolate the Problem 2. Give proof or evidence of the problem – View with an open mind – Talk with people, review records – Facts, circumstances, figures, etc. that directly show the problem – From the Mechanical angle: schedules, rework & scrap, equipment breakdown, accidents, etc. – From the People angle: productivity, knowledge & skill, safety, interest, job satisfaction, etc.
Step 1 — Isolate the Problem 3. Explore the cause – Causes for each and every piece of evidence – Avoid subjective conclusions or preconceptions – From the Mechanical angle: method, layout, tools, equipment, environment, standards, etc. – From the People angle: job assignment, faulty instruction, human relations, personality, etc. – Piece together cause-and-effect relationships – Dig down deep
Chain of Causation ProblemEvidence Causes DirectIndirectCore/Root Customers complaining about late deliveries. On-time delivery stands at 87%. Packaging delays creating a bottle-neck of finished product. Delivery of packaging product is frequently delayed from printer. Films from art department are being held up waiting for confirmations. Need corporate approvals for correct usage of all company logo marks. Poor communication between corporate marketing and plants.
Chain of Causation vs. 5 Why’s ProblemEvidence Causes DirectIndirectCore/Root Customers complaining about late deliveries. On-time delivery stands at 87%. Packaging delays creating a bottle-neck of finished product. Delivery of packaging product is frequently delayed from printer. Films from art department are being held up waiting for confirmations. Need corporate approvals for correct usage of all company logo marks. Poor communication between corporate marketing and plants
Step 1 — Isolate the Problem 4. Draw conclusions – Think over the causes — if these causes are removed, will we still see the evidence? – What are the problem points (root causes)? 1.Is the problem Mechanical? 2.Is the problem People? 3.Is it both? –Decide on a plan of solution
Problem Point Evaluation Mechanical Problems—use JM to solve People Problems: –Don’t know/ Can’t do—use JI to solve –Don’t care/ Won’t do—use JR to solve
Conclusions for Step 1 Step 1 is the most important step Follows Root Cause Analysis pattern Looks for Proof or Evidence of the problem to identify true causes Further refines analysis of problem to include Mechanical and People angles Uses this analysis to help set up plan for solution
For Mechanical Problems First, analyze the overall job or situation – Cast a “wide net” – Use Flow Charts and Flow Diagrams to list and map the routing and location of parts, materials, data, etc. Next, analyze the specific job or situation – Breakdown the job method by listing all details – Question all details to locate problem sources
Types of Questions to Ask WHY is it necessary? WHAT is it’s purpose? WHERE should it be done? WHEN should it be done? WHO is best qualified to do it? HOW is the ‘best way’ to do it?
Three Parts of a Job 1.MAKE READY This is the time and effect spent in getting things ready. Also the placement of materials or parts. 2.DO This is the work that actually accomplishes the desired main objective and adds value. 3.PUT AWAY This includes all details necessary to complete the job after the DO operation.
Which Do We Question First? We question the DO details first because if they are unnecessary then there is no need to question the rest of the operation The greatest opportunity for improvement lies in the MAKE READY and PUT AWAY details The movement of materials without any value added is either MAKE READY or PUT AWAY
For People Problems Don’t Know Can’t Do Don’t Care Won’t Do Faulty Instruction Wrong Assignment Personality Situation
Faulty Instruction Insufficient Instruction Incorrect Instruction Inefficient Instruction No Instruction Little or no preparation of: Instructor Work Place Learner
Use Job Instruction to Remedy Make a Timetable for training Breakdown the job –Important Steps –Key Points Prepare the workplace Prepare the learner –Put at ease –State the job –Find what they know –Get interested –Place in correct position No. __________ JOB INSTRUCTION BREAKDOWN SHEET Operation: Glost Kiln Operator Cycle _ Parts: None _ Tools & Materials: Kiln Gloves _ IMPORTANT STEPSKEY POINTSREASONS A logical segment of the operation when something happens to advance the work. Anything in a step that might— 1.Make or break the job 2.Injure the worker 3.Make the work easier to do, i.e. “knack”, “trick”, special timing, bit of special information Reasons for the key points 1.Discharge GK #3 1.Use kiln gloves 2.Pull at correct time 1.Burn hazard 2.Kiln control 2.Charge GK #3 1.Fix downed ware 2.Do not slam transfer 1.Defect prevention 2.Defect prevention 3.Record car data 4.Check kiln temperatures 1.Call Ceramic Tech if 50°F delta in zones 1.Proper kiln control 5.Charge GK #3 1.Fix downed ware 2.Do not slam transfer 1.Defect prevention 2.Defect prevention 6.Discharge GK #3 1.Use kiln gloves 2.Pull at correct time 1.Burn hazard 2.Kiln control 7.Record car data 8.Check kiln temperatures 1.Call Ceramic Tech if 50°F delta in zones 1.Proper kiln control
Personality Situation Get the facts – Be sure you have the whole story Weigh and decide – What possible actions are there? – What will the results of the action be? – Question the psychological effect – Don’t hurt the person’s pride – Leave a way open for the individual to “save face”
Step 4 — Check & Evaluate Results As soon as possible or practical to learn if the correction has been made Keep alert of the Human Angle—watch for Resistance or Resentment Look for signs of a new problem created by this correction Evaluate results by consulting records Look for way of preventing recurrence
How Do They Compare? Toyota Problem Solving Steps Focus on principles/values that should be targeted when resolving a problem Determine root cause so we know the correct target for countermeasure Use brainstorming and consensus building to develop countermeasures Focus on speedy action and persistent follow through TWI Problem Solving Steps Focus on proof or evidence of a problem that needs to be fixed Determine root cause and evaluate correct course of action: Mechanical or People Use TWI methods of JM, JI and JR to prepare a solution and correct the problem Focus on thorough use of the TWI methods
Integrating the TWI Methods Good review of the TWI methods Gives renewed meaning to TWI methods with the focus on problem solving Allows front line supervisors the ability to solve their everyday problems using the TWI skills they possess Can be used as an introduction to the TWI methods
The TWI Workbook: Essential Skills for Supervisors Shingo Research and Professional Publication Prize 2007 Patrick Graupp and Robert J. Wrona For additional information please contact