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1 EO - 702 TQM and Quality Control. EMBA-2, BUP EO - 702 M. ASAD Quality & Quality Management What does the term quality mean? - Quality is the ability.

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Presentation on theme: "1 EO - 702 TQM and Quality Control. EMBA-2, BUP EO - 702 M. ASAD Quality & Quality Management What does the term quality mean? - Quality is the ability."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 EO TQM and Quality Control

2 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Quality & Quality Management What does the term quality mean? - Quality is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations.

3 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Quality & Quality Management Design quality: Inherent value of the product in the marketplace Dimensions of Quality includes: –Performance, –Features, –Reliability, –Durability, –Serviceability, –Response, –Aesthetics, and –Reputation.

4 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Quality & Quality Management Conformance quality: Degree to which the product or service design specifications are met The Consequences of Poor Quality –Loss of business –Liability –Productivity –Costs

5 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Costs of Quality External Failure Costs Appraisal Costs Prevention Costs Internal Failure Costs Costs of Quality

6 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Various Quality Awards 1. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award -USA 2. Deming Prize - Japan Quality Awards -ISO 9000 Quality Certification The ISO 9000 Series Standards ISO ANSI BSI CEN GOST

7 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD ISO 9000 Series ISO ISO Quality system auditing guide Quality manual development guide ISO Series

8 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD ISO A set of international standards for assessing a companys environmental performance Standards in three major areas –Management systems - Systems development and integration of environmental responsibilities into business planning –Operations - Consumption of natural resources and energy –Environmental systems - Measuring, assessing and managing emissions, effluents, and other waste ISO 14000

9 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Total Quality Management (TQM) o Is a philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) o is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment. o One way to think of TPM is "deterioration prevention" and "maintenance reduction", not fixing machines. o TPM is a proactive approach that essentially aims to prevent any kind of slack before occurrence. o Motto : zero error, zero work-related accident, zero loss.

10 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Continuous improvement Competitive benchmarking Employee empowerment Team approach Decisions based on facts Knowledge of tools Supplier quality Champion Quality at source Elements of TQM

11 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Quality Control Six Sigma Quality A philosophy and set of methods companies use to eliminate defects in their products and processes Six Sigma allows managers to readily describe process performance using a common metric: Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO)

12 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Six Sigma Approach: The PDCA / PDSA Cycle Plan Do Check /Study Act

13 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Six Sigma Approach : DMAIC Cycle 1. Define (D) 2. Measure (M) 3. Analyze (A) 4. Improve (I) 5. Control (C) Customers and their priorities Process and its performance Causes of defects Remove causes of defects Maintain quality Overall focus of the methodology is to understand and achieve what the customer wants

14 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Flowcharts Check sheets Histograms Pareto Charts Run charts Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement Tools –There are a number of tools which are used for problem solving and process improvement. –But Six Sigma methodology could integrate all those nicely. Eight Tools: Cause-and-effect diagrams Opportunities Flow diagrams Control charts

15 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Six Sigma Roles and Responsibilities 1.Executive leaders must champion the process of improvement 2.Corporation-wide training in Six Sigma concepts and tools Champion Master Black belt Black belts Green belts Yellow belts 3.Setting stretch objectives for improvement 4.Continuous reinforcement and rewards

16 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Methods for Generating Ideas Some additional tools that are useful for process improvement / problem solving are: Brainstorming – Technique for generating a free flow of ideas in a group of people. Quality circles – group of workers who meet to discuss ways of improving products or process. –List reduction –Balance sheet –Paired comparisons

17 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Methods for Generating Ideas Interviewing – Technique for identifying problem and collecting information. 5W2H – A method of asking questions about a process that includes what, why, where, when, who, how, and how much. –What organization does it the best? –How do they do it? and etc. Benchmarking – Process of measuring performance against the best in the same or another industry.

18 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD The Shingo System: Fail-Safe Design Two aspects reflected –Single min exchange of die (SMED) –Zero defect : Source inspection & Pokayokes Shingos argument: – SQC methods do not prevent defects – Defects arise when people make errors – Defects can be prevented by providing workers with feedback on errors – Inspection :Successive Check, Self Check, Source Inspection Poka-Yoke / Fail Safe includes: –Checklists –Special tooling that prevents workers from making errors

19 EMBA-2, BUP EO M. ASAD Sources of Defects Sources of defects (in order of importance) Omitted processing Processing errors Errors setting up work pieces Missing parts Wrong parts Processing wrong workplace Misoperation Adjustment error Equipment not set up properly Tools and jigs improperly prepared


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