Presentation on theme: "A Systems Approach To Training"— Presentation transcript:
1 A Systems Approach To Training byDr. James J. KirkProfessor of HRDWestern Carolina University
2 What You Will Learn The fundamentals of systems theory How to apply systems theory to trainingSystem design steps involved in designing training programsWays of making the development of training programs more effectiveThe prime output of training
3 HRD Involves Training & Development Organization Development Career Development
4 TrainingTraining involves planned learning activities designed to improve an employee’s performance at her/his current job.
5 SystemA system is defined as a set of elements or parts that must work together to perform a particular function.An organization is a system or a collection of systems. Every job in an organization is used by a system to produce a product or service.The product or service is the means by which an organization supports itself.
6 System InputsPeople: The workers making up a group and linked by a common activity.Material: The raw products which go into the system.Technology: The technique for achieving a practical purpose or goal.Time: The measured period during which an action or process continues.
7 System Outputs All systems have at least one output. Outputs can be a material product, such as a computer or a service, such as a computer repair service.The output of a particular system in an organization may be the final product, a service sold to its customers, or a product or service to aid or enhance the organization in its goal to produce a marketable product or service.
8 Systems Design Steps1. Analyzing what is required by the organization.2. Designing the system to meet the needs of the organization.3. Developing the system using the outputs of the analysis and design phase.4. Implementing the new element or system.5. Evaluating the product throughout its creation and implementation.
9 Systems Approach To Designing Training 1. ANALYZE the system in order to completely understand it, and then describe the goals you wish to achieve in order to correct any shortcomings or faults within the system.
10 Analysis Involves Analyzing the system. Compiling a task inventory for each job in the system.Selecting the tasks to be trained.Setting performance standards for each task.Choosing an instructional strategy to teach the tasks.Estimating the costs of the training strategies.
11 45 Caliber TestSometimes managers see training as a solution to all of their (their employees’) performance problems.Trainers must resist the temptation to design and deliver a training program on the spot.Chances are that the performance gaps are not due to a lack of knowledge, skills, or attitudes.In such instances a trainer might want to perform the “45 Caliber Test.”
12 45 Caliber TestTo perform the 45 Caliber Test, simply pose this questions to the manager..“If you held a 45 caliber pistol to your employees’ heads demanding that they perform or else, could they do the job?”If the answer is “yes,” there is no need to train.
13 Systems Approach To Designing Training 2. Design a method or model to achieve your goals.
14 Training Design Involves Developing behavior objectives.Recording the required learning steps to achieve each learning objective.Writing pre and post tests.Listing required pre-training behaviors.Sequencing and structuring the training.
15 Systems Approach To Designing Training 3. DEVELOP the method or model into a product (in training, this product is called courseware).
16 Development Of Training Involves Listing the activities that will bring about the desired learning of tasks.Choosing the appropriate learning materials.Reviewing existing materials.Developing new instructional materials.Making certain the entire training program functions as an integrated whole.Validating training by having a sample audience try it out and provide feedback for changes.
17 Systems Approach To Designing Training 4. IMPLEMENT the product or courseware.
18 Training Implementations Involves Creating a management plan for the training.Actually conducting the training as specified.
19 A Training Management Plan 1. A clear and complete description of the course.2. A description of the target population.3 .Directions for administering the course.4. Directions for administering and scoring tests.5. Directions for guidance, assistance, and evaluation of the learners.
20 A Training Management Plan 6. A list of all tasks to be instructed.7. Course map or course sequence.8. Program of Instruction - How the course is to be taught.9. A copy of all the training material, i.e., training outlines, student guides, etc.
21 A Training Management Plan 10. Instructor and staff training requirements (needed and accomplished).11. Any other documents related to the administration of the course.
22 Systems Approach To Designing Training 5. EVALUATE the development system throughout the four phases listed above to ensure it is heading in the right direction and achieving the desired results.
23 Evaluating Training Involves Determining if the learners were satisfied with the training and acquired the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to perform the desired job tasks.Conducting an item analysis of tests to assure their validity and reliability.Determining if the trainees can perform the designated tasks at their job sites.
24 TO MAKE THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRAINING EFFECTIVE An early focus on the clients must be maintained. This is done by direct contact with the clients through interviews, observations, surveys, and participatory design and development methods.
25 TO MAKE THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRAINING EFFECTIVE Place the five phases - analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation under one management team to ensure that a symmetrical program is constructed.
26 TO MAKE THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRAINING EFFECTIVE Make the design of training an empirical process. This requires observation, measurement of behavior, careful evaluation of feedback, and a strong motivation to make design changes when needed.
27 TO MAKE THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRAINING EFFECTIVE Repeat testing, feedback, evaluation, and change activities throughout the training system's development and implementation.
28 TO MAKE THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRAINING EFFECTIVE Maintain records throughout the process. The audit trail should contain the data gathered in the analysis, the reasons for developing a piece of courseware, and documents that explain why certain decisions were made.
29 RememberThe bottom line (i.e., prime output) of training is the effective and efficient delivery of a product/service.Training is also used to support many organization development initiatives such as total quality management and self-directed work teams.
30 What You Have Learned The fundamentals of systems theory How to apply systems theory to trainingSystem design steps involved in designing training programsWays of making the development of training programs more effectiveThe prime output of training