41 Demonstrate Leadership By Example OSHA Act of 1970 Supervisors need to comply with OSHA law… that's leadership by example.OSHA Act of 1970Public Law , 91st Congress, S.2193, December 29, 1970.5. Duties (a) Each employer -- (1) should furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees; (2) should comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this Act. (b) Each employee should comply with occupational safety and health standards and all rules, regulations, and orders issued pursuant to this Act which are applicable to his own actions and conduct.What is the supervisor’s first and most important responsibility to OSHA law?______________________________________________________________What is the employee’s first and most important accountability to their employer?
52 Furnish safe work and a safe workplace Supervisors should provide adequate resources to achieve standardsProviding a safe and healthful work environmentWhat can the supervisor and manager do make the physical environment safe?______________________________________________________________What can the supervisor and manager do to reduce unhealthful worker stress?
6Who is a qualified person? The workplace should be inspected by a qualified person as often as the type of operation or the character of the equipment requires. Defective equipment or unsafe conditions found by these inspections should be replaced or repaired or remedied promptly.Who is a qualified person?"Qualified" means one who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project."Competent person" means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are un-sanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.What are weaknesses inherent in the walkaround inspection process?______________________________________________________Observation. Supervisors can overcome the inability to uncover unsafe behaviors during an inspection by regularly observing employee performance. Informal observation provides an effective method to detect and correct hazardous conditions and unsafe behaviors before they result in an accident.Informal observation is conducted continually by employees and supervisors.Formal observation procedures can be developed as an analysis tool to assist safety staff in determining safety related trends. A safety committee observation process and Job hazard analysis are forms of formal observation.Job Hazard Analysis A “Job Hazard Analysis” is an organized approach that involves the worker and supervisor observing a task, breaking it down into steps, analyzing each step for safety and operational needs, and providing recommendations for procedures that will meet those needs.Effective use of JHAs will do the following:Provide the supervisor with a clear understanding of what the employee does and does not know about the task;Recognize needed changes in the equipment or procedures; andProvide a way to increase employee involvement.What are inherent strengths of a Job Hazard Analysis?______________________________________________________________
7Incident/Accident Investigation The employer should analyze incident and injury accident that workers suffer in connection with their employment, to determine the root causes and preventive measures that should be taken to prevent recurrence. The employer should promptly install any safeguard to take any corrective measure indicated or found advisable.What does a quality incident/accident investigation look like?________________________________________________________________Why is it smart to investigate incidents as well as accidents? Why?__________________________________________________________________________What is the purpose of conducting an accident investigation?Have you ever seen "blame game" accident reports that claim the following personal causes? The investigator who quickly arrives at the following "causes" for an accident is most likely committing attribution error. We attribute the performance failure to personal causes before considering those external factors that may be contributing to the behavior. Accident reports that primarily attempt to fix the blame rather than fix the system claim the victim:Was lazy Lacked common sense Was careless Should have knownWas stupid Was inattentive Was accident-prone Had a poor attitudeA thorough incident/accident analysis will try to uncover why the above conditions exist. Discipline will occur only after it can be demonstrated that root causes did not contribute to the surface causes of the incident/accident.Why is it important to thank employees who report incidents and injuries immediately?_______________________________________________________________
8Weed out the causes of injuries and illness The Effective Incident/Accident Investigation ProcessGather the information. Secure the scene and collect facts about what happened. The first two steps ensure the accident scene does not change and information is gathered immediately.Analyze the facts. Develop the sequence of steps leading up to and including the injury event. Determine the surface and root causes for the accident.Implement solutions. The final phase of the process is to develop and recommend corrective actions and management solutions to make sure similar incidents/accidents do not recur. If an honest evaluation determines that no root causes exist, then disciplinary actions may be justified.Weed out the causes of injuries and illness1. Direct Cause of InjuryAlways the harmful transfer of energy.Kinetic, thermal, chemical, etc.Contact with, exposure too, etc.2. Surface Causes of the AccidentSpecific/unique hazardous conditions and/or unsafe actionsProduce or contribute to the accidentMay exist/occur anytime, anyplaceInvolve the victim and others3. Root Causes of the AccidentFailure to design and/or carry out safety policies, programs, plans, processes, procedures, practicesPre-exist surface causesResult in common or repeated hazardsUnder control of managementFailure can occur anytime, anywhere
9Just another day at work Read the following OSHA accident synopsis and answer the questions:Accident SynopsisThis is an after-the-fact narrative of the facts and circumstances as they relate to the serious injury John Smith received on 6/24/94 while employed as a machine attendant for XYZ of Portland, Maine.Specific overall work being done:Just before the accident, the crew and victim were involved in the process of grading, sorting, cutting, packaging, wrapping, and inventorying poultry products.Specific work being done by the victim:At the time of the accident, the victim was attending to the #2 processing machine on the economy tray pack production line. His job was to ensure that if there was a problem with the machine he was to fix it. Also, if the machine was to plug up with poultry, the victim was to shut off the line, lockout/tagout the machine and unplug and then return it to service.Description of the accident:The lead worker for the work area had just stopped the production line to see if there was a problem with the product. The operator and lead worker had initiated their safety plan, line of sight communications, and all machinery was shut off. At this point the victim felt there was an opportunity to clean out the machine that was plugging up with poultry parts, and stepped over the railing and to the front of the machine. The victim could not be seen by the machine operator while he was in front cleaning out the machine. The lead worker, upon finding no problem and using the line of sight communications, gave the hand signal to the machine operator that everything was clear and to start the machine and production line again.The machine operator stepped forward and started the machine and production line, unaware that the victim had his arm in the machine unplugging it. As the machine started, the cutting blades severed the victim’s little finger and ring finger at the palm of his hand, at which point he began to scream to shut the machine off.Post accident activity:The machine was immediately shut off and the victim removed his hand. The victim was then given first aid and 911 was called. The first responders then ordered the victim to be transported to Sacred Heart Hospital where the victim was attended to, spent a few days recuperating and then was released.What caused the accident?______________________________________________________________What actions are appropriate?
10Controlling the hazards you identify When conditions arise that cause unusual or extraordinary hazards to workers, the employer should take additional precautions taken to protect workers or to control hazardous exposure. If the operation cannot be made reasonably safe, regular work should be discontinued while such abnormal conditions exist, or until adequate safety of workers is ensured. To do that employers should consider hazard control strategies.Engineering ControlsThese controls focus on the source of the hazard, unlike other types of controls that generally focus on the employee exposed to the hazard. The basic concept behind engineering controls is that, to the extent feasible, the work environment and the job itself should be designed to eliminate hazards or reduce exposure to hazards.Engineering controls are based on the following broad principles: 1. If feasible, design the facility, equipment, or process to remove the hazard and/or substitute something that is not hazardous or is less hazardous.Redesigning, changing, or substituting equipment to remove the source of excessive temperatures, noise, or pressure; Redesigning a process to use less toxic chemicals; Redesigning a work station to relieve physical stress and remove ergonomic hazards; or Designing general ventilation with sufficient fresh outdoor air to improve indoor air quality and generally to provide a safe, healthful atmosphere.2. If removal is not feasible, enclose the hazard to prevent exposure in normal operations.Complete enclosure of moving parts of machinery; Complete containment of toxic liquids or gases;Glove box operations to enclose work with dangerous microorganisms, radioisotopes, or toxic substances; andComplete containment of noise, heat, or pressure-producing processes. 3. Where complete enclosure is not feasible, establish barriers or local ventilation to reduce exposure to the hazard in normal operations. Examples include:Ventilation hoods in laboratory work; Machine guarding, including electronic barriers; Isolation of a process in an area away from workers, except for maintenance work; Baffles used as noise-absorbing barriers; and
11 Management ControlsBy following established safe work practices for accomplishing a task safely (and using PPE in many cases), your employees can further reduce their exposure to hazard. Management controls attempt to change surface and root cause behaviors.1. Some of these general practices are very general in their applicability. They include housekeeping activities such as: Removal of tripping, blocking, and slipping hazards; Removal of accumulated toxic dust on surfaces; and Wetting down surfaces to keep toxic dust out of the air.2. Other safe work practices apply to specific jobs in the workplace and involve specific procedures for accomplishing a job. To develop these procedures, you conduct a job hazard analysis. 3. While controlling work practices and procedures can help reduce exposure to hazards, other measures such as changing work schedules can also be quite effective. Such measures include:Lengthened rest breaks,Additional relief workers,Exercise breaks to vary body motions, andRotation of workers through different jobsWhy are engineering controls considered superior to management controls?________________________________________________________________________________________
12Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Using personal protective equipment is another management control used to reduce exposure by placing a barrier between the employee and the hazard. When exposure to hazards cannot be engineered completely out of normal operations or maintenance work, and when other management controls cannot provide sufficient additional protection from exposure, personal protective clothing and/or equipment may be required. PPE includes such items as:Face shields Steel-toed shoes Safety glasses Hard hatsKnee guards Leather aprons Mesh gloves Life jacketsRespirators Ear muffs Safety goggles HarnessWhat might be some of the drawbacks of reliance solely on PPE to protect workers?________________________________________________________________________________________Interim MeasuresWhen a hazard is recognized, the preferred correction or control cannot always be accomplished immediately. However, in virtually all situations, interim measures can be taken to eliminate or reduce worker risk. These can range from taping down wires that pose a tripping hazard to actually shutting down an operation temporarily. The importance of taking these interim protective actions cannot be overemphasized. There is no way to predict when a hazard will cause serious harm, and no justification to continue exposing workers unnecessarily to risk.
133 Provide Effective Safety Training Safety Education and Training Supervisors should provide adequate safety trainingThe employer should see that workers are properly instructed and supervised in the safe operation of any machinery, tools, equipment, process, or practice which they are authorized to use or apply.Safety Education and TrainingWhat is safety “education?”That which leads out of ignoranceA process through which learners gain new understanding, acquire new skills, or change their attitudes or behaviors. Generally, the “why” in safety - describes the consequences of performance.Natural consequences = explains the resulting hurt/health that occurs automatically as a result of our actions.System consequences = explains the organizational punishment/reward that may or may not occur as a result of our actions.Primarily increases general knowledge and improves attitudes.What is safety “training?”A specialized form of education that focuses on developing or improving skills - the focus is on performance. The “how” in safety - performing safe behaviors, practices, procedures.Primarily increases specific knowledge and improves skills.Who is best suited to train employees on specific safe work procedures?_________________________________________________________________________________________________How do you know safety training is effective ? ______________________________________________________________
14Training Options Non-training Options A safety performance problem may not always be the result of a training deficiencyMager Decision TreeDescribe theSafety PerformanceDiscrepancy(The Gap)IsTherea deficiency inknowledge,ability orskill?Employee does know how to accomplish the task safely.NoYesEmployee does not know how to accomplish the task safely.TrainingOptionsHas theemployeeperformed taskbefore?Is the taskaccomplishedoften?YesYesNoNoConductFormal safetytrainingConductpracticeProvidefeedbackNon-trainingOptionsDoobstacles tosafe behaviorexist?Is unsafebehaviorrewarded?Is safebehaviorpunished?Does safebehaviormatter?YesNoYesYesRemovepunishment& arrangepositiveconsequencesArrangepositive &negativeconsequencesArrangenegativeconsequencesRemoveobstacles
15What's On-the-Job Training? Step 1. Introduction. Tell the learner what you’re going to train. Emphasize the importance of the procedure to the success of the production/service goals. Invite questions. Emphasize accountability.Step 2. Trainer show and tell. The trainer demonstrates the process. The trainer first explains and demonstrates safe work procedures associated with the task. In this step the learner becomes familiar with each work practice and why it is important.Trainer: EXPLAINS and PERFORMS each step.Learner: OBSERVES each step and QUESTIONS the trainer.Step 3. Trainer ask and show. The learner explains the procedure to the trainer, while the trainer does it. This gives the trainer an opportunity to discover whether there were any misunderstandings in the previous step. This step also protects the learner because the trainer still performs the procedure. The learner also responds to trainer questions.Learner: EXPLAINS each step and RESPONDS to questions.Trainer: PERFORMS each step and QUESTIONS the trainee.Step 4. Trainee tell and show. The trainer has the trainee do it. The learner carries out the procedure but remains protected because the learner explains the process before proceeding to do itLearner: EXPLAINS and then PERFORMS each step.Trainer: OBSERVES each step and QUESTIONS the trainee.Step 5. Conclusion. Recognize accomplishment. Reemphasize the importance of the procedure. How it fits into the overall process. Tie the training again to accountability.Step 6. Document. Training documentation should be more than an attendance sheet. See the sample training certification document on the next page. It represents one possible way to document training.Students use this process later while presenting their OJT. What’s neat about this procedure is that education and training is occurring, and measurement of knowledge and skills is occurring in steps Emphasize step four to protect the worker. In OJT that does not involve hazards, step four could be eliminated.Step 6. Strong documentation is critical. If it isn’t in writing it didn’t get done. An attendance roster, by itself, merely certifies attendance...not adequate..
16If it isn't in writing…it didn't get done! Make sure you document training is sufficient. Most safety training is conducted at what is termed "level 2." This means that measurement of knowledge and skills must take place through some sort of evaluation. Supervisors question to determine knowledge and observe to determine skills.Training Subject ______________________ Date _________ Location _______________Trainee certification. I have received on-the-job training on those subjects listed (see other side of this sheet): This training has provided me adequate opportunity to ask questions and practice procedures to determine and correct skill deficiencies. I understand that performing these procedures/practices safely is a condition of employment. I fully intend to comply with all safety and operational requirements discussed. I understand that failure to comply with these requirements may result in progressive discipline (or corrective actions) up to and including termination.Employee Name Signature Date________________________ ____________________________ _________Trainer certification. I have conducted orientation/on-the-job training to the employees(s) listed above. I have explained related procedures, practices and policies. Employees were each given opportunity to ask questions and practice procedures taught under my supervision. Based on each student's performance, I have determined that each employee trained has adequate knowledge and skills to safely perform these procedures/practices. Trainer/Supervisor Name Signature Date Reviewed by:Safety Coordinator Signature DateSupervisor Validation. On ______________ I observed the above named employees using the safety procedures and/or practices learned during this training session. They were able to correctly answer my questions concerning these procedures and/or practices.
17(Page 2 of certification) Sample Hazard Communication Training Outline The following information was discussed with students: Overview of the hazard communication program - purpose of the program ¾ Primary, secondary, portable, and stationary process container labeling requirements¾ Discussion of the various sections of the MSDS and their location¾ Emergency and Spill procedures¾ Discussion of the hazards of the following chemicals to which students will be exposed¾ Symptoms of overexposure¾ Use/care of required personal protective equipment used with the above chemicals¾ Employee accountability__ ____________________________________________The following procedures were practiced: ¾ Spill procedures¾ Emergency procedures¾ Personal protective equipment use The following (oral/written) test was administered..(Or each student was asked the following questions) (I recommend you keep these tests as attachments to the safety training plan and merely reference it here to keep this document on one sheet of paper) 1. What are the labeling requirements of a secondary container? (name of chem. and hazard warning)2. When does a container change from a portable to secondary container? (when employee loses control)3. What are the symptoms of overexposure to ___________________? (stinging eyes)4. Where is the "Right to Know" station (or MSDS station) located? (in the production plant)5. What PPE is required when exposed to ________________? (short answer)6. How do you clean the PPE used with ______________? (short answer)7. What are the emergency procedures for overexposure to ______________? (short answer)8. Describe spill procedures for ___________________. (short answer)9. When should you report any injury to your supervisor? (immediately)10. What are the consequences if you do not follow safe procedures with this chemical (injury, illness, discipline)
184 Provide Adequate Supervision All these are supervision activities that support adequate oversight.Accident and Incident InvestigationConducting safety meetingsWorker safety/health inspectionsSupervisor/employee Job Hazard AnalysisRewarding and recognizing for safetyOn the job safety trainingFollowing through on safety enforcementCoaching employees on how to work safely.Motivating workers so they want to work safely.Providing personal protective equipment.Ensuring safe equipment and materials are purchased.Providing and check for safe tools.4Provide Adequate SupervisionSupervisors should provide adequate oversight of workThe employer should see that workers are properly supervised in the safe operation of any machinery, tools, equipment, process, or practice which they are authorized to use or apply. Every employer should provide the health hazard control measures necessary to prevent employee exposure to harmful or hazardous conditions. They should inform the employees regarding the known health hazards to which they are exposed, the measures which have been taken for the prevention and control of such hazards, and the proper methods for utilizing such control measures.What’s the definition of “adequate” safety supervision?The key to safety supervision is super...visionThe supervisor must detect and correct hazards beforethey cause injury or illness to an employee.Supervising through effective work planning and interventionsWork planningBefore the work begins and the The supervisor should: and the worker:Doesn’t know what to do... Let them know what they’re supposed to doDoesn’t know how to do it... Find out if they know how to do it...Doesn’t know why they should do it... Let them know why it’s importantThinks your way won’t work... Convince them your way will workThinks their way is better... If their way is better, use itThinks it’s not important... Let them know the prioritiesFears negative consequences... Convince them negative consequences wont’ occurHas personal problems Work around them or give work to othersHas personal limitations... Verify work is not beyond personal limitsSee obstacles beyond their control... Verify there are no obstacles beyond controlThinks it can’t be done Verify it can’t be doneList manager and supervisor activities that help to ensure effective supervision is occurring daily in the workplace._________________________________________________________________________
19Critical Decision Point: Understanding the impact of safety leadershipYou are a busy first line supervisor. On Monday morning, John Smith, a worker in the packaging department, walks into your office with a concerned look on his face. He tells you that his lower back is experiencing pain every time he lifts a box. You’re busy and must quickly decide how to handle the situation:You thank John and tell him to get back to work; you will handle the problem as soon as you can. After he leaves you just shake your head and get back to the things you think “you get paid to do.”Tuesday afternoon, John suffers a severe injury to his back and must be admitted to the hospital for possible surgery. It is determined that he has sustained a permanent partial disability to his lower back which results in continual pain, and very limited range of motion.What is the impact of your decision on...John SmithJohn’s family**Wife & three childrenJohn’sCo-workersYou, theSupervisorTheCompany
205 Enforce Safety Policies and Rules Supervisors should enforce safety rules.. Insist and never ignore.Employer ResponsibilitiesEvery employer should do everything necessary or proper in order to hold employees accountable for complying with safety policies and practices. The employer should take all reasonable means to require employees to:work and act in a safe and healthful manner;conduct their work in compliance with all applicable safety and health rules;use all means and methods, including but not limited to, ladders, scaffolds, guardrails, machine guards, safety belts and lifelines, that are necessary to safely accomplish all work where employees are exposed to a hazard; andnot to remove, displace, damage, destroy or carry off any safety device, guard, notice or warning provided for use in any employment or place of employment while such use is required by applicable safety and health rules.Employees’ ResponsibilitiesEmployees should conduct their work in compliance with the employer's safety policies and rules. They should report all injuries immediately to the person in charge or other responsible representative of the employer. The should warn other employees and report any hazards they see as soon as possible to the appropriate party.The primary "Chain of Accountability"The employer is accountable to the law and the employee is accountable to the employer's safety policies and rules.
21What does the employer control? What does the employee control Accountability follows controlWhat does the employer control?What does the employee controlBefore a supervisor administers discipline to an employee for failure to meet safety standards...…what five questions should he or she first ask?Have I _________________________________________________________________?
22Once you're justified, leadership demands action If the supervisor can answer yes to the above self-searching questions, it's a good chance, he or she is justified in disciplining the employee. Administering disciple is is actually a function of leadership and when carried out appropriately, results in positive outcomes. Employee behaviors change as desired and the working relationship between the employee and supervisor improves.Keys to appropriate disciplineDiscipline is based on fact not feeling.How can we make sure this is achieved? __________________________Consistent throughout the organization: top to bottom and laterallyApplied only only after it's determined management has met obligations to employeeAppropriate to the severity of the infraction and impact on the organizationShould employees, supervisors and managers all receive the same disciplinary action for a given infraction? Why or why not.Yes No Why? ____________________________________________________________Motivation is key to effective disciplineThe supervisor's motivation can make the difference between success and failure when disciplining.Which stated reason (motivation) below is more likely perceived as leadership by the employee?___ "I'm disciplining you because I have to…it's policy…If I don't I might get in trouble."___ "I'm disciplining you because I want to…you're important…I don't want you to get hurt. I want to make sure you understand I insist on safe performance."
23! Best Practice: Regular Recognition A very important supervisor leadership responsibility.!Best Practice: Regular RecognitionRegularly Recognize and Reward and you'll Rarely have to Reprimand!Although not mandatory, if you regularly recognize and reward, you'll rarely have to reprimand.Recognition acknowledges behavior/results. Attention or favorable notice. May not necessarily increase the frequency of a performance. A form of intangible reward.Reward is a positive recognition that increases desired behaviors. Any response to performance that increases the frequency of that performance. Rewards may be tangible or intangible.Incentives are promises of future recognition/reward for achieving desired performance. Motivates workers to perform to get the recognition/reward.Criteria for effective recognition:Must be soon - To make the tie between the performance and recognition stronger.Must be certain - Employees must know you will recognize… not a game. They must also know the exact behavior for which they are being recognized.Must be significant - This is defined by those that receive the recognition/reward.Must be sincere - You really mean it. Done for the right reasons.q What are appropriate safety behaviors to recognize and reward?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________q What inappropriate safety behavior do we most frequently recognize and reward?
24Let's review1. What are five key safety responsibilities of the supervisor?________________________________________________________________________2. When does the real safety "education" occur?_________________________________________________________________________________3. What is the best training strategy to use for training hazardous work procedures?4. Why is it important for the supervisor to insist on safety, not merely encourage it?5. What three employee safety behaviors should always be recognized?__________________________________________________________________________6. What should a supervisor ask him/herself before disciplining an employee for substandard performance in safety?