2Introduction Most Frequent BGSU OSHA Recordable Injuries/Illnesses Slips, trips and fallsStrains and sprainsCutsStruck by an object
3Objectives Types of accidents Causes or contributing factors of accidentsHow to perform an accident investigationWhat documentation should be completed
4OverviewThe failure of people, equipment, supplies or surroundings to behave or react as expected, causes most accidents.Accident investigations determine how and why these failures occur.Accident investigations are a tool for supervisors and accident investigation teams to find main causes of illnesses, injuries, and “near misses” allowing for corrective actions.
5OverviewDepartments are encouraged to use the BGSU Accident Investigation Report Form as a method of reducing hazards in their areas.The aim of an accident investigation should be to prevent recurrence of the same accident.
6Definitions Accident Near Miss Accident Investigation An unplanned event that interrupts the completion of an activity that may or may not result in personal injury, illness or in property damage.Near MissAn unplanned event that interrupts the completion of an activity which directly involves the workers and does not result in personal injury, illness or in property damage.Accident InvestigationThe process of determining the causes of accidents and implementing corrective actions to prevent recurrence.
7Types of Accidents Minor Accidents Serious Accidents Accidents that cause minor injury/illness, requiring little or no treatment, or property damage.Serious AccidentsAccidents that cause injury/illness or damage to equipment and/or property. If the accident is considered an OSHA recordable the accident is serious.
8Outcomes of Accidents Negative Positive Injury, illness, or death, property and equipment damage, lost productivity, poor morale and $$$$$$.PositiveAccident investigationsincrease productivity, improve operations, raise awareness and prevent recurrence.
9Causes and Contributing Factors of Accidents Accident Causation ModelTasksMaterialEnvironmentPersonnelManagement
101. Task Ergonomics Safety work procedures Condition changes Process MaterialsWorkersAppropriate tools/materialsSafety devices (including lockout)
112. Material Equipment failure Machinery design/guarding Hazardous substancesSubstandard material
123. Environment Weather conditions Housekeeping Temperature Lighting Air contaminantsPersonal protective equipment
134. Human Factor Level of experience Level of training Physical capabilityHealthFatigueStress
145. Management/Process Failure Visible active senior management support for safetySafety policiesEnforcement of safety policiesAdequate supervisionKnowledge of hazardsHazard corrective actionPreventive maintenanceRegular audits
15Who Should Perform the Accident Investigation? Dependent on the severityPerson involvedSupervisorEnvironmental Health and SafetyThe advantage of having a supervisor perform the investigation is the supervisor is likely to be the most knowledgeable about the work, the persons involved, and current conditions.The supervisor can also take immediate remedial action.
16Steps in an Accident Investigation Initial ResponseInformation GatheringAnalysis and ConclusionBGSU Accident Investigation Report
17Step 1 - Initial Response After an accident occurs, the initial response should be as follows:Get treatment for individuals that may be injured.Assure the safety of others.Secure the site.Complete the BGSU Injury/Illness Reporting Form.
18Step 2 – Information Gathering Inspect the accident site and note information such as:Positions of injured workersEquipment and materials being usedSafety devices in usePosition on appropriate guardsPositions of controls of machineryDamage to equipmentHousekeeping of the areaWeather conditionsLighting levelsNoise levels
19Step 2 – Information Gathering Gather information:On procedures and rules for the areaOn maintenance records and equipment involvedBy taking photographs and making diagramsFrom employees
20Step 2 – Information Gathering InterviewInjured person or personsWitnessesSupervisorsIt is important to interview to establish an understanding and to obtain in his/her own words what happened.
21Step 2 – Information Gathering Interview Do’sPut the witness, who is probably upset, at easeEmphasize the real reason for the investigation, to determine what happened and whyLet the witness talk, you listenConfirm that you have the statement correctTry to sense any underlying feelings of the witnessMake short notes only during the interviewAsk open ended questions
22Step 2 – Information Gathering Interview Do Not’sIntimidate the witnessInterruptPromptAsk leading questionsShow your own emotionsMake lengthy notes while the witness is talking
23Step 2 – Information Gathering Ask Who? What? Where? When? How?Conduct interviews separatelyMake it clear that the investigation is used to avoid recurrence and not to place blame
24Step 3 – Analysis and Conclusion Isolate contributory factorsWould the accident have occurred if this particular factor was not present?DetermineWhy the accident occurredA likely sequence of events and probably causesAccident Tree Handout (Tab 1)ExampleBad Report (Tab 2)Better Report (Tab 3)
25Step 3 – Analysis and Conclusion Draw conclusions and make recommendations based on key contributing factors and causes.Implement corrective actions and set a time table to complete them.
26Step 4 - BGSU Accident Investigation Report Statement of injured or ill employee concerning the incident and injured employee informationWitness statementsEquipment involvedOther factors or contributing causesCorrective action planTab 4
27Summary What are the different types of accidents What causes or contributes to accidentsHow do you perform an accident investigationWhat documentation should be completed
28Where to Get More Information Injury and Illness Reporting and Job Safety at BGSU TrainingEnvironmental Health and Safety Web SiteEnvironmental Health and Safety