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Orientation and Training

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1 Orientation and Training
If you think training is expensive, try ignorance!

2 Chapter Overview The primary job of the supervisor is to see to it that the organization and, more specifically, the department meet their objectives. The employees of the department are one of the most important resources available to the supervisor for meeting these goals. Supervisors are responsible for making sure that their employees know what to do and how to do it.

3 Even the best new and experienced employees will need some degree of training at times.
Types of training needed by employees include orientation of new employees to the company and the job, specific job-related training, and retraining as new skills are needed in an ever-changing workplace.

4 Orientation training will help new employees gain basic information related to their job and become productive sooner. Orientation reduces the nervousness and uncertainty of new employees, and helps them develop a positive attitude by boosting job satisfaction.

5 Orientation may be held by the supervisor alone or with the help of the human resources department.
The first task is to relate information about the specifics of holding a particular job in a particular department. This includes explaining what the department does and the new employee’s job details, general details about the organization, safety rules, employee benefits, and other information useful to help the employee feel comfortable.

6 Orientation of New Employees
Orientation: The process of giving new employees the information they need in order to do their work comfortably. Training: Increasing the skills that will enable employees to better meet the organization’s goals. Training may be provided for technical skills related to performing the employee’s job, and interpersonal skills such as teamwork and communication skills.

7 Supervisors are responsible for making sure that their employees know what to do and how to do it.
Good selection practices will minimize the time and cost of employee training. However, even the best employee will need some degree of training.

8 Types of training needed by employees include:
orientation of new employees to the company and the job, specific job-related training, and retraining as new skills are needed in an ever-changing workplace.

9 This training includes such things as
Orientation is the process of giving new employees the information they need in order to do their work comfortably, effectively, and efficiently. This training includes such things as explaining where the lunchroom and restrooms are located, where to get supplies, as well as how to operate the equipment basic to their job.

10 The primary reason for orientation programs is that the sooner employees know basic information related to their job, the sooner they can become productive. It also reduces their nervousness and uncertainty, and leads to more satisfaction so they are less likely to quit

11 Orientation training is used to develop a positive attitude in employees.
The time spent conducting a session shows that the organization values the new employees. Employees with positive attitudes are more likely to do good work.

12 Human Resources and Orientation
In a small organization, supervisors often are responsible for orienting their employees. In fact, the supervisor may decide what is covered in the orientation. In large organizations, a more formal orientation program is conducted by the human resource department.

13 When the human resources department and supervisor share responsibility for conducting the orientation, the human resources department typically covers topics related to the organization’s policies and procedures, and has the employee fill out the necessary paperwork.

14 The supervisor is responsible for topics related to performing a particular job in a particular department and the involvement of co-workers. If the department has any policies and procedures of its own, the supervisor should explain these. The supervisor should prepare and follow a checklist of topics during orientation of new employees.

15 Conducting an Orientation
Employee Handbook: A document that describes an organization’s conditions of employment, policies regarding employees, administrative procedures, and related matters.

16 In large organizations with a human resources department, a handbook of information may be provided for new employees and will spell out orientation procedures to follow. In small organizations, it may be up to the individual supervisor to develop and use the orientation methods.

17 An employee handbook describes an organization’s
conditions for employment (such as attendance, behavior on the job, performance of duties), policies regarding employees (time off, hours of work, benefits), administrative procedures (filling out timesheets and travel expense reports), and related matters.

18 The supervisor should show (and perhaps tell) the employee what topics are in the handbook and describe how to use it to find answers to questions.

19 Another important orientation method is to give the employee a tour.
The tour can start with the employee’s work station, and include such things as the restrooms, water fountain, coffee station, photocopier, and storage areas for supplies, parts, or other materials needed to do the job. Also introduce coworkers along the way, telling a little about what they do in the organization.

20 Involve coworkers in the orientation.
Ask all employees to help welcome newcomers. Encourage coworkers to invite a new employee to join them on breaks and at lunch The supervisor can also help the new employee feel welcome on the first day by inviting him or her to lunch.

21 The supervisor should also check with new employees at the end of their first day and their first week in order to make sure they understand what they are supposed to be doing and know where to get what they need.

22 The Training Cycle Training is an ongoing process.
As the workplace changes, employees need continued training. The process of providing training takes place in a cycle of steps. The steps include: identifying a need for training, setting training objectives based on desired level of performance and skills, and choosing the training methods.

23 Once the training has been planned, someone conducts it.
The trainer may be the supervisor or even one of the department’s employees. In other cases, a professional trainer is more appropriate. The choice depends on the supervisor’s or employee’s expertise, content and type of training, and time available for training.

24 Identifying Employee Training Needs
It is part of the supervisor’s job to recognize when employees need further training. The supervisor also decides when it is convenient to meet those training needs with a training program.

25 There are several ways to identify training needs.
First, the supervisor can observe problems in the department that suggests a need for training. Customer complaints and recurring defects may be indicators of a training need. The supervisor may simply ask employees what they need to learn to do a better job. Finally, the supervisor can identify training needs when carrying out the planning function.

26 Major Types of Training
On-the-Job Training: Teaching the job while trainer and trainee do the job at the work site. Apprenticeship: Training that involves working alongside an experienced person who shows the apprentice how to do the various tasks involved in a job or trade.

27 Vestibule Training: Training that takes place on equipment set up in a special area off the job site.

28 A variety of types of training are available for employees.
On-the-job training Apprenticeship Cross-training Vestibule training Classroom training Computer-based instruction Role playing Basic-skills training The supervisor must weigh the costs of training relative to the benefits, resources available, and trainees’ needs for practice and individualized attention.

29 More information is retained when other senses are included.
In terms of retention of information taught, people will retain only 10% of what they read. More information is retained when other senses are included. Ninety percent of materials taught are retained when people describe while doing the task.

30 Coaching and Mentoring
Coaching: Guidance and instruction in how to do a job so that it satisfies goals for performance. Mentoring: Providing guidance, advice, and encouragement through an ongoing one-on-one work relationship.

31 To help employees maintain and use skills they have acquired, the supervisor takes on the role of coach. Much of the coaching is done informally to support the more formal training process. Basically, the supervisor observes employees and works with them to solve problems he or she identifies. To be effective, the supervisor should work on only one problem at a time.

32 The steps of coaching include
observing the employee’s performance and providing feedback, praising proper use of skills, and pointing out mistakes. The supervisor and employee should decide how to correct the problem and determine what additional training may be necessary. Later the supervisor observes the employee’s performance again. Acting as a coach is especially important for supervisors in organizations that encourage employees to participate in decision making and teamwork.

33 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Training
The most basic way to evaluate training is to measure whether the problem addressed by the training is being solved. The supervisor is usually the best person to determine whether the training is working. Other people can provide information to help the supervisor evaluate training. Participants in the training might fill out a questionnaire or the organization might set up a team of people to evaluate the organization’s training methods and content.

34 If the evaluation suggests that training is not meeting its objectives, the training may have to be modified or expanded. The type of training may not be appropriate for the training needs.

35 To identify what kinds of changes to make, the supervisor can ask questions such as the following:
Was the trainer well prepared? Did he or she communicate the information clearly and in an interesting way? Did the training include visual demonstrations of how to do the task, not just verbal descriptions? Were the employees well enough prepared for the training program? Did the employees understand how they would benefit from the training? Did employees have a chance to ask questions? Did the employees receive plenty of praise for their progress?

36 Training that does not produce results should be changed or discontinued.

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