Presentation on theme: "RURAL ELECTRIFICATION BY SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS DR.S.M.ALI PUNYASHREE PATTANAYAK KIIT UNIVERSITY BHUBANESWAR."— Presentation transcript:
RURAL ELECTRIFICATION BY SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS DR.S.M.ALI PUNYASHREE PATTANAYAK KIIT UNIVERSITY BHUBANESWAR
CONTENTS INDIAN SCENARIO NEED FOR RURAL ELECTRICATION NEED OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION TYPICAL CONTEXT OF POWER NEEDS IN RURAL AREAS OPTIONS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN INDIA COMPARISION OF GRID COST(Rs/kWh), PV, DIESEL HOMER APPLICATION IN PV DESIGN EMISSION ANALYSIS
INDIAN SCENARIO India-World’s 4 th largest Energy Consumer The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 223.625 GW as on April 2013 Captive Power plant generates additional of 34.44 GW Non Renewable power plant constitute 87.55% of installed capacity Renewable power constitute 12.45% of installed capacity Per capita average annual consumption in India-96 kWh in rural and 288 kWh in urban areas Domestic sector constitutes major energy demand and its consumption accounts for 60 percent of energy used. The main energy sources are coal and oil, whilst hydro, wind, nuclear and biomass provide additional sources.
NEED FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION They are located in difficult terrain areas like forests, hill areas and deserts. The number of households may range between 2 to 200, with a majority of villages having a population below 500. 60% of the 5 67000 villages in India have a population of 500 and under and 8% of these are inaccessible. Power demand in villages is quite low due to dispersed distribution of loads. Also rural domestic consumers are mainly peak time consumers, contributing for poor load factors of 0.2-0.3.
NEED OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION Both the traditional energy and commercial energy are in short supply and the demand supply gap is in increase. Pressure on traditional energy resources such as wood is continuously increasing due to growing population. Heavy dependence on commercial fuels such as coal and oil as a short term measure for meeting increasing demand is alarming in view of depleting fossil fuels and pollution. Energy supply to far–off rural areas is associated with high transportation and transmission losses of about 22.4%.
TYPICAL CONTEXT OF POWER NEEDS IN RURAL AREAS Typical load profile in rural areas
OPTIONS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN INDIA Suitable option% efficiencyApprox cost [Rs/kWh] Influencing Factor SHS13-1810-12Onsite Generation, Modular in size, Battery Life DIESEL15-2510-15Availability Escalating fuel cost, Environmental Concerns, Pollution Control Board WIND254-8Seasonal, Bulk Power Source, Away from load, Medium Wind Profile low plant load factor BIOMASS15-202-4Availability, Maintenance GRID---5Voltage Profile, Consumers Hour Loss
HOMER APPLICATION IN PV DESIGN PV Array4 kW Wind turbine1 Generic 3kW Generator 13 kW Battery 24 Tubular Gel battery Inverter1 kW Rectifier1 kW Dispatch strategyCycle Charging
COST ASSOCIATED WITH THE SET UP Component CapitalReplacementO&MFuelSalvageTotal ($) PV17,4525,17000-2,89719,724 Generic 3kW1,6416511,0480-1213,219 Generator 1780000-159621 Tubular Gel battery 6,4325,5973,9880-74915,268 Converter1,0004171,2780-782,618 System27,30511,8356,3150-4,00541,450
ANNUALIZED COST OF THE SET UP Component CapitalReplacementO&MFuelSalvageTotal ($/yr) PV1,36540400-2271,543 Generic 3kW12851820-9252 Generator 161000-1249 Tubular Gel battery 5034383120-591,194 Converter78331000-6205 System2,1369264940-3133,242
ENERGY PRODUCTION DUE TO DIFFERENT SOURCES Component ProductionFraction (kWh/yr) PV array6,75183% Wind turbine1,36217% Generator 100% Total8,113100%
PV SIMULATION RESULT FOR A YEAR DATA QuantityValueUnits Minimum output0.00kW Maximum output4.21kW PV penetration514% Hours of operation4,366hr/yr Levelized cost0.229$/kWh
SIMULATION RESULT OF WIND MILL FOR A YEAR VariableValueUnits Minimum output0.00kW Maximum output2.78kW Wind penetration104% Hours of operation5,596hr/yr Levelized cost0.185$/kWh
SIMULATION RESULT OF THE GENERATOR QuantityValueUnits Electrical production0.00kWh/yr Mean electrical output0.00Kw Min. electrical output0.00kW Max. electrical output0.00kW
SIMULATION RESULT OF THE BATTERY BANK QuantityValueUnits Energy in649kWh/yr Energy out520kWh/yr Storage depletion1.35kWh/yr Losses127kWh/yr Annual throughput582kWh/yr Expected life10.0Yr QuantityValue String size24 Strings in parallel1 Batteries24 Bus voltage (V)48
SIMULATION RESULT OF CONVERTER INVERTER SIMULATION RESULT FOR A YEAR RECTIFIRE SIMULATION RESULT FOR A YEAR QuantityInverterRectifierUnits Hours of operation8,7590hrs/yr Energy in1,4600kWh/yr Energy out1,3140kWh/yr Losses1460kWh/yr
CONCLUSION Renewable energy sources especially Solar energy are the best option for the rural electrification.
REFERENCES Kamalapur G D, Udaykumar R Y, “Electrification in rural areas of India and consideration of SHS”, 5th International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems, ICIIS 2010, Jul 29 - Aug 01, 2010 Ai Bin, Yang Hongxing, Shen Hui and Liao Xiaobo, “Computer aided design for PV/wind hybrid system,” Proceeding of 3td World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Vol. 3, pp.2411-2414, May, 2003. Belfkira R, Hajji O, Nichita C and Barakat G, “Optimal sizing of standalone hybrid wind/PV system with battery storage,” European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, pp.1-10, Sept, 2007. Bernard J.: Energie solaire: calculs et optimisation. Ellipses- Paris,pp 53-93,2004