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CHANGES IN ELECTRIC GENERATION Generation vs. Demand: Demand growing 3% per year New Generation more difficult to build.

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Presentation on theme: "CHANGES IN ELECTRIC GENERATION Generation vs. Demand: Demand growing 3% per year New Generation more difficult to build."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHANGES IN ELECTRIC GENERATION Generation vs. Demand: Demand growing 3% per year New Generation more difficult to build

2 Generation Large, Centralized Plants (Old Way) Small, Distributed Plants (New Way) Also, Site Renewable Generation where it makes Sense (and Profit)

3 Large Plants Environmental Issues Fossil Fuels Location/Siting

4 Large Plants (Cont.) New Ideas: – “Clean Coal” –Wind, –Solar, –Geothermal, –Biomass –Oceanic Thermal Energy

5 Clean Coal Coal Gasification (Combined Cycle) - Low Emmissions Could Happen on Iron Range (Excelsior Project)

6 WIND Wind Generators currently very popular More and more Cost Effective Not a Cure-All - never windy when you need it most

7 Wind Farm Current Standard – 1.5 MW WTG on 80 meter Towers Energy cost now in the 4 cents/KWH range

8 NE Minnesota Wind Data

9 Typical Service Drop to WTG

10 NEG Micon NM82

11 Solar Photvoltaics –Electricity Directly from Sunlight –Low Conversion efficiency –Fairly High Cost Solar Thermal - Solar One –Could yet show some promise ONLY WHEN THE SUN SHINES

12 Geothermal Hot Water from the Earth Use the Hot Water or Flash to Steam Currently 2700 MW capacity in US Capacity growing at 9% worldwide Excellent for Home Use - Heat Pumps

13 Binary-Cycle Plant (Geothermal)

14 OTEC Extract “solar” heat from Ocean Water Flash it to Steam for Turbine/Generator Can be combined with DeSalination Costly

15 Typical Energy Costs for Various Generation Sources –Type: Installed Cost: Energy Cost: –Fuel Cells$15,000-20,000/kW cents/kwh –Solar - PV Cells $6,000-8,000/kW cents/kwh –Geothermal $5,000-10,000/kW 8-10 cents/kwh –Biomass $2,000-2,500/kW 3-5 cents/kwh –Wind $1,000-2,000/kW 3-5 cents/kwh –Natrl Gas (Turbine) $1,500-1,800/kW 2-4 cents/kwh –Coal $1,500-2,000/kW cents/kwh –Hydro $2,000-3,000/kW cents/kwh

16 Distributed Generation Make Electricity where and when needed: –Neighborhood –Commercial Center –Industrial Park Wind, Solar, Geothermal, Biomass Fuel Cells MicroTurbines

17 Microturbines Run on Natural gas – Short Sighted? kilowatt Designs Create both Electricity and Hot Water Small businesses, collection of homes

18 Fuel Cells Most common type: PEM Polymer-Electrolyte Membrane Strips Electrons from Hydrogen to make Electricity Safety/Cost Where to get H2?? H2 Energy Density

19 DEMAND SIDE Conservation Through: Market Pricing Efficient Products

20 Market Pricing Energy Prices becoming De-Regulated New Equipment to Automate Pricing: Smart Meters Smart Appliances

21 Smart Meters Talks to Electric Company Records Hourly Prices Tells Appliances what current Price is Shops Around for a Better Rate?

22 Efficient Products Smart Appliances run only when energy is cheapest, talk to each other Superconductors Cars

23 Superconducting Motors Extremely Efficient - Zero Electric Losses Very High Torque - 140X increase in Power Density Costly? Not very Rugged - Bismuth-Cu Ceramic Tape US Navy Loves Them

24 Other Superconductors Transformers Transmission Lines Potential Savings… –Between 5 and 10% of all Electricity Generated is lost in Transformers and T-Lines

25 Cars EVs - Electric Vehicles –Biggest Problem is Energy Density Battery Powered - Poor Range/Heavy Fuel Cell Pwrd - Hydrogen is volatile, has poor energy density and no delivery system, LNG has emissions Hybrids - LEVs –Just appearing on Market –Good “Next Step” –30 MPG SUV

26 CONCLUSIONS More of the Same Old Stuff More New Stuff Greater Emphasis on Environmental Factors Conservation is Key Wireless, Wireless, Wireless

27 WEB References National Renewable Energy Labs –http://www.nrel.gov/ Electric Power Research Institute –http://www.epri.com/ US Dept. of Energy –http://www.energy.gov/ Electric Vehicles –http://www.evworld.com/


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