Presentation on theme: "Software Tools Supporting Village Power System Design"— Presentation transcript:
1 Software Tools Supporting Village Power System Design Jean KuAPEC Village Power WorkshopNovember 9, 2004
2 Why do we need new models? Traditional Rural ElectrificationGrid extensions, micro-hydro or dieselsNew and Renewable AlternativesSmall-scale individual DC systemsSolar Lanterns, Solar or Wind Home SystemsHybrid Power AC SystemsWind, PV, Biomass, Gensets, BatteriesMini-grids, Micro-enterprise Zones, Battery Recharging Stations
3 The Role of Models Objective and subjective criteria Computers analyze objective criteriaPeople analyze subjective criteriaOffers simplicity and transparencyIt’s easier to weigh the quality of service issues when you have comparable cost estimates for each alternative
4 The Modeling ProcessWhat is the most economical way to meet a community’s power needs?Data InputsLocal energy resourcesCommunity loadsBasic component costsGeneral maintenance costsModeling ToolsDistribution system configuration (on- vs. off-grid)ViPORResultsBasic system designInstallation and O&M costsBase line cost of alternativesYearly power productionFuel consumptionModeling ToolsPower System DesignHOMER, Hybrid2
5 NREL’s Suite of ModelsViPOR: An optimization model that determines the best mix of centralized and isolated power generation for a particular village.HOMER: An optimization model that determines the least-cost system configuration.Hybrid2: A simulation model to determine the cost and performance of a wide variety of power systems given the load and available resources.
6 Village Power Optimization Model for Renewables An optimization model to design village electrification systems, ViPOR will:Optimize the mix of centralized and isolated generationSelect between grid extension and stand-alone systems for centralized powerSelect the optimal placement of the centralized power system(s)Determine the optimal placement of transformersDesign the optimal MV and LV distribution gridViPOR’s optimization procedure considers costs and revenues.
7 ViPOR: Inputs Location & energy requirements for expected loads Potential locations of centralized power system(s)Wire and transformer costsPower generation costs for isolated and centralized power systems (can be calculated by HOMER)Expected revenues from each load (on-grid and off-grid)Terrain description (spatial map)Maximum low voltage line length
8 ViPOR: Sample villageWater is shown in blue, forest green, grass white, and trail gray.Green dots are houses, brown are stores, orange is church.Yellow triangles are high-wind sites, orange is low-wind site.
9 ViPOR: Solution for sample village ViPOR has chosen a high-wind site to power the centralized systemHouses not on the grid are to be given PV home systemsRed lines are MV wires, blue are LV wiresRed dots are transformers
12 ViPOR: Future enhancements Explicit calculation of voltage dropsCalculation of power losses in distribution systemMultiple transformer sizesMultiple wire sizesTighter integration with GIS and HOMER
13 What is HOMER?A tool for comparing and evaluating micropower technology options for a wide range of applicationsVillage power systemsStand-alone applicationsGrid-connected systemsConventional technologiesNew technologies
22 Questions HOMER can Answer Should I buy a wind turbine, PV array, or both?Will my design meet growing demand?How big should my battery bank be?What if the fuel price changes?How should I operate my system?And many others…
23 InputsComponent cost and performance dataResource availabilityLoads
24 Simulation - Optimization - Sensitivity Analysis Estimate the cost and determine the feasibility of a system design over the 8760 hours in a yearOptimizationSimulate each system configuration and display list of systems sorted by net present cost (NPC)Sensitivity AnalysisPerform an optimization for each sensitivity variable[Energy Balance]SimulationOptimizationSensitivity Analysis
25 Sensitivity Analysis Important information is very uncertain LoadsEven if you have data loads will change with systemResourcesData for a different place, natural variabilityCostsFuel prices, O&M costsPolicy and market analyses requires input ranges not point estimates
26 Simulation ResultsCost and performance of a particular system configuration
27 Optimization ResultsRanked list of system configurations
29 The Hybrid2 Simulation Software A tool designed to accurately predict the long term performance of a wide variety of powersystems made up of conventional fuel generators, wind generators, photovoltaics and energy storage through batteries
30 Hybrid2 Data Requirements LoadsPrimary time series or daily load profile, including deferrable and optional loadsSite/Resource parametersWind speed and incident solar time seriesAmbient temperature time series or nominal valueElevation, site position and wind turbulence parametersPower SystemConfiguration and componentsComponent performance parameters (Library)Dispatch Strategy (Library)
31 Hybrid2 Analysis Procedures Site/Resource parametersWind and solar time seriesAmbient temperature dataElevation, site position and wind turbulence parametersLoadsPrimary time series or daily load profilePower SystemConfiguration and componentsComponent performance parameters (Library)Dispatch Strategy (Library)Performance ResultsSystem designEconomic ResultsCapital costO&M costDetailedModeling
32 Hybrid2 Software Features Probabilistic/time series model: Accounts for the fluctuations of the wind and load during each time stepVery diverse system architectureAC, DC and combined systems can be modeledSystem can include multiple wind turbines, multiple diesels, batteries, PV and 4 different types of power convertersDetailed economic analysisOn line library of manufactures equipmentDetailed dispatching options: 17 different control parametersHybrid systems glossary of commonly used termsEnergy audit/estimation toolResource data gap filler
33 Hybrid2 Power System Design The power system is designed to meet the required loads using the resources available. This requires a fair amount of hybrid system and design experience.
34 Hybrid2 Results Interface Simulation results displayed in a graphical format as well as a summary file which includes power flows from each component, loads, and system losses.
35 HOMER and Hybrid2 Main differences Design philosophy: Simplicity vs. flexibilityUse: Optimization vs. performance predictionsSystem configuration:HOMER output, Hybrid2 inputMain differencesHybrid2 HOMER- Intra-hour variability - Easy initial useBus voltages - Dispatch optimizationDispatch flexibility - All DG technologies- Engineering tool - Options analysis
36 These are only models!ViPOR, HOMER, and Hybrid2 do not provide "the right answer" to questions. It does help you consider important factors, and evaluate and compare options.
37 Model Availability ViPOR: Available from www.nrel.gov/vipor. HOMER: Available from Inquiries,Hybrid2: Send to Provided with software, manuals and user support.These models were developed with funding from the US Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory