2WORLD RELIGIONS and Ethnic Groups Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Shinto, Confucianism
3GPSGPS: SS7G12 The student will analyze the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southern and Eastern Asia.A. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group.B. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism.C. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.
4E.Q.How do the cultures of Southern and Eastern Asia differ?
5Ethnic GroupShares cultural ideas and beliefs that have been a part of their community for generations.May include:LanguageReligion, historyTypes of foodsSet of traditional stories, beliefs, or celebrations
6Religious GroupShares a belief system in a god or gods, with a specific set of rituals and literature.People from different ethnic groups may share the same religion, though they may be from very different cultures.
7Which describes an ethnic group? A. people that like to grow foodB. people that like to read booksC. people who share the same religious beliefsD. people with a shared language, religion, or culture
8Which describes a religious group? A. people that like to grow foodB. people that like to read booksC. people who share the same religious beliefsD. people with a shared language, religion, or culture
9Religion in South Korea What % of the people in South Korea are Buddhists?1.3%23.2%26.3%49.3%
10VocabularyReincarnation: when a person dies, his soul enters the body of another beingPolytheism: belief in many godsMonotheism: belief in one godAtheism: belief in no godKarma: your actions determine your fateCaste system: belief that social class is inherited and does not change throughout a person’s lifeNirvana: state of perfect peaceKami: divine spirits who live in nature
11Buddhism began in India about 520 B.C. 4th largest religion Found everywhere but mostly in SE AsiaFounder: rich young man, Siddharta Gautama, who was upset by the poverty & suffering around himAfter many years of thinking about it, he decided people could find peace if they rejected greed and desire.Called Buddha (The Enlightened One) by his followersUnselfishness is the key to everything
12Buddhist BeliefsAtheistic: belief in no god – man alone can change evil into goodReincarnationKarma4 Noble TruthsMiddle WayNirvana
134 Noble Truths Middle Way (8 Fold Path) Life brings painSuffering & sorrow are usually caused by greed and desire for material thingsNirvana is reached by giving up greedy desiresFollow the Middle Way to achieve NirvanaTry to recognize the truthTry to avoid evil actions & bad peopleDo not say things that hurt othersRespect other people & their belongingsChoose a job that does no harm to othersDo not think evil thoughtsAvoid excitement or angerWork at meditation
14Hinduism 1 of oldest religions in the world Began in India; main religion there3rd largest religion in the world4 holy books are called Vedas
15Hindu BeliefsPolytheistic: worship many gods who are all part of the supreme being, BrahmanCows are sacred.All living beings have soulsReincarnationIf a person was good, the next life is better; if he was bad, the next life is worse.The soul is reincarnated until the life it lives is good enough to be united with Brahman.Karma
16Hinduism: BeliefsReincarnationthe soul does not die with the body but enters the body of another beingThe type of life a person leads determines what next life will be like.The soul is reincarnated over and over till the life it lives is good enough for it to be united with Brahman.
17Caste SystemBelief that social class is inherited and does not change throughout a person’s life.Each caste had its own specific place in society. They socialized, ate, married, worked, and worshipped within their own caste. They would NEVER consider marrying or working outside their caste.The only way to move to a higher caste is to be reincarnated into one.
18Caste System Continued There are four main castes:Brahmans – priests & wise menKshtriyas – warriors, rulersVaisyas – merchants, traders, and small farmersSudras – peasants, field workersDalit – untouchables, who do the work no one else will do
19Islam Began in Arabian Peninsula in 7th century AD (600s) Founder: MuhammadMonotheistic2nd largest religion in the worldHoly Book: QuranSpread to India in 1500s AD with Muslim armies who established the Mogul Empire.Ruled India for almost 200 yearsMuslim conquerors treated Hindus as conquered people and introduced them to Islam
20Islamic Beliefs Do not accept the caste system Few People Cheer For Pizza THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM ‘IMAN’ or FAITH ‘SALAT’ or PRAYER ‘ZAKAT’ or CHARITY ‘SAIJ’ or FASTING ‘HAJJ’ or PILGRIMAGEIslamic BeliefsDo not accept the caste systemDo not believe cows are sacredFew eat pork5 PILLARS OF ISLAMProfess faith: there is only 1 god, Allah, and Muhammad is his messengerPray 5 times a day facing MeccaGive charity (alms) to the poorFast during the holy month of RamadanMake a pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca at least once in your life
21Shintoism Earliest religion in Japan Means “way of the gods” Once was state religion, but not nowStill widely honored among the Japanese
22Shinto Beliefs神Kami are believed to live in beautiful places, animals, and as people’s ancestorsThe beautiful places (special mountains and rivers) are sacredCleanliness is a virtueNo strong belief in life after deathNature worship – Japanese create small beautiful peaceful gardensFollowers offer prayers to kami at small altars for blessings and protection
24Confucianism Began in China about 550 BC Founder: Confucius – important Chinese scholar & teacherNot a religion - a system based on good deeds and moralityThe Chinese emperor hired Confucian scholars in 121 BC to help organize his government.Confucianism influenced Chinese government for almost 2000 years.
25Confucian BeliefsKey to peace and order is for people to behave with good character and virtueWhat you do not like when done to yourself, do not unto others: Golden Rule of Behavior5 Basic RelationshipsRuler and subjectFather and sonHusband and wifeOlder brother and younger brotherFriend and friendIf each relationship is based on kindness, there will be peace and harmony in the country.
26South KoreaEthnic Groups: homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese)Religions: Christian 26.3%, Buddhist 23.2%, other or unknown 1.3%, none 49.3%
27North KoreaEthnic Groups: almost all Korean; there is a small Chinese community and a few ethnic JapaneseReligions: traditionally Buddhist and Confucianist, some Christian and Religion of the Heavenly Way
28ChinaEthnic Groups: Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uighur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5%Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2% (officially atheist)
29IndiaEthnic Groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%Religions: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1%
30IndonesiaEthnic Groups: Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9%Religions: Muslim 86.1%, Christian 8.7%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4%
31JapanEthnic Groups: Japanese 98.5%, Koreans 0.5%, Chinese 0.4%, other 0.6%Religions: Shintoism 83.9%, Buddhism 71.4%, Christianity 2%, other 7.8%note: total adherents exceeds 100% because many people belong to both Shintoism and Buddhism
32VietnamEthnic Groups: Kinh (Viet) 86.2%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.7%, Muong 1.5%, Khome 1.4%, Hoa 1.1%, Nun 1.1%, Hmong 1%, others 4.1%Religions: Buddhist 9.3%, Christian 7.2%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Muslim 0.1%, none 80.8%
33Literacy and Standard of Living Literacy affects the standard of living.Lack of education limits job choices.Many countries only make education available to people who can pay for it.GDP (gross domestic product)is 1 way to measure the standard of living.
34ContrastsHigher rates of literacy are usually found in wealthier countries.Some SE Asian countries have weak economies but very high literacy rates.China and North Korea have strong state-run systems that require attendance through a certain age.China has some of the richest and poorest people in Eastern Asia.
35CRCT Test Prep pages430. Which of these religions is considered one of the oldest in the world?IslamShintoismHinduismConfucianismC. Hinduism
36CRCT Test Prep pages431. What is the name of the Hindu sacred text?VedasQuranMiddle WayFour Noble TruthsA. Vedas
37CRCT Test Prep pages432. What is the Hindu belief in reincarnation?The belief that there is only one godThe worship of the cow as a sacred animalThe belief that men should treat each other with kindnessThe belief that a soul returns to life in another body after deathD. The belief that a soul returns to life in another body after death
38CRCT Test Prep pages 149-152 433. What is the Hindu belief in Karma? That one’s actions determine one’s fateThat man should worship only one godThat children should always obey their parentsThat a woman should always wear a head scarf when she goes out of the houseA. That one’s actions determine one’s fate
39CRCT Test Prep pages434. How long do Hindus believe a soul will be reincarnated?Reincarnation happens only once to each soul.A soul is reincarnated forever and there is no end.A soul is reincarnated for as long as it chooses to be.It will be reincarnated until the soul lives a life good enough to be united with Brahman.D. It will be reincarnated until the soul lives a life good enough to be united with Brahman.
40CRCT Test Prep pages 149-152 435. What is the caste system? The name of the Hindu priesthoodThe belief that social class is hereditary (inherited)The voting system used in the Southeastern electionsThe name of the way labor in India is divided between men and womenB. The belief that social class is hereditary (inherited)
41CRCT Test Prep pages436. Where was the religion of Buddhism founded?IndiaChinaJapanVietnamA. India
42CRCT Test Prep pages 149-152 437. Who was the founder of Buddhism? JesusConfuciusMuhammadSiddharta GautamaD. Siddharta Gautama
43CRCT Test Prep pages 149-152 438. What does “Buddha” mean? Middle Way Glorified OneEnlightened OneFour Noble TruthsC. Enlightened One
44CRCT Test Prep pages439. What do Buddhists believe people need to do to be happy and find peace?They are to live their lives as vegetarians.They are to accept the belief in only one god.They are to give up greed and greedy desires.They are to live quietly in the caste system.C. They are to give up greed and greedy desires.
45CRCT Test Prep pages440. What Buddhist teaching shows its followers the correct way to live their lives?The BibleThe QuranThe Five PillarsThe Middle WayD. The Middle Way
46CRCT Test Prep pages441. How did the first Muslims come to Southern and Eastern Asia?Muslim invaders entered India in the 1500s AD.The first Muslim armies invaded Japan in the 1400s AD.The earliest Muslims first came to China as traders in the 1200s AD.The first Muslims were invited into India because the people there wanted a new government.A. Muslim invaders entered India in the 1500s AD.
47CRCT Test Prep pages 149-152 442. What are the Five Pillars? Basic beliefs of IslamRules of the caste systemStandard form of Muslim architectureBeliefs that Muslims and Hindus have in commonA. Basic beliefs of Islam
48CRCT Test Prep pages443. What is the name of the Muslim holy book?BibleVedasQuranMiddle WayC. Quran
49CRCT Test Prep pages444. Islam is considered a monotheistic religion because its followers believe inMany godsOnly one godReincarnationNatural objectsB. Only one god
50CRCT Test Prep pages445. In which country was Shintoism founded?IndiaChinaJapanVietnamC. Japan
51CRCT Test Prep pages446. What are the kami that are so important in Shinto belief?They are religious writings of Shinto priests.They are the elected leaders of the Shinto communities.The people who convert to Shintoism are referred to as kami.They are spirits that followers of Shinto believe exist in all things around them.D. They are spirits that followers of Shinto believe exist in all things around them.
52CRCT Test Prep pages447. How do believers of Shinto practice their religion?They pray at small altars in their homes.They attend churches once a week to worship in a group.They must make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in their lifetime.They divide society into castes and work to limit contact between castes.A. They pray at small altars in their homes.
53CRCT Test Prep pages448. In which country was Confucianism founded?ChinaIndiaJapanNorth KoreaA. China
54CRCT Test Prep pages449. What did Confucius believe were the keys to social order and peace?Strict caste systemTo worship only one godRuler who could keep orderGood character and virtue in the peopleD. Good character and virtue in the people
55CRCT Test Prep pages 149-152 450. Which is Confucius’ Golden Rule? “All men are created equal.”“Health makes one wealthy and wise.”“There is no God, but the one true God.”“What you do not like when done to you, do not to others.”D. “What you do not like when done to you, do not to others.”
56CRCT Test Prep pages451. How did Confucianism come to play an important role in Chinese society?Confucianism has replaced all other religions in China.Confucian philosophy had little effect on Chinese society until the 20th century.Confucius led an army to take over the Chinese government during his lifetime.A Chinese emperor hired Confucian scholars in 121 BC to help organize his government.D. A Chinese emperor hired Confucian scholars in 121 BC to help organize his government.
57CRCT Test Prep pages452. Why is Confucianism considered a philosophy instead of a religion?Confucius only believed in one god.No religion is allowed by the Chinese government today.Confucius never wrote any of his ideas down for his followers.His teachings are more about ethics and behavior than about religious ideas.D. His teachings are more about ethics and behavior than about religious ideas.
59Summary Write 2 paragraphs. In the first paragraph, compare (alike) the 5 major belief systems of Southeast Asia.In the 2nd paragraph, contrast (different) the 5 maor belief systems of Southeast Asia.Caution: Be sure to refer to the belief systems by their names – don't’ write “One believes in one god, while another doesn’t believe in any.”