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SS7G12a,b The student will analyze the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southern and Eastern Asia.

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Presentation on theme: "SS7G12a,b The student will analyze the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southern and Eastern Asia."— Presentation transcript:

1 SS7G12a,b The student will analyze the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southern and Eastern Asia.

2 a. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group. An ethnic group shares cultural ideas and beliefs that have been a part of their community for generations. May include: language, religion, history, types of foods, a set of traditional stories, beliefs, or celebrations.

3 a. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group. An religious group shares a belief system in a god or gods, with a specific set of rituals and literature. People from different ethnic groups may share the same religion, though they may be from different cultures.

4 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. One of the oldest religions in the world. Main religion of India Third largest religion in the world behind Christianity and Islam Developed in India (much of it came from the religion practiced by the Aryans, a group who invaded from the north around 1500B.C.) Hinduism

5 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Worship of Aryan priests followed complicated rituals and hymns known as the Vedas of The Books of Knowledge. These prayers and rituals as well as other Aryan beliefs led to the development of Hinduism. Polytheistic (poly means many) All of the gods are part of a supreme spirit named Brahman. Hinduism

6 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Believe all living things (animals as well as men) have souls. Some animals, like the cow, are sacred. Many Hindus are vegetarians ( eat no meat) All believe in reincarnation (the soul does not die with the body, but enters the body of another being, either a person or an animal.) Type of life a person led determines what the next life will be like. Hinduism

7 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. A good person will have a better life. An evil person will suffer in his next life. A soul is reincarnated over and over again until the life it leads is good enough to bring it to be united with Brahman. Karma is an important part of Hinduism. Karma = belief that one’s actions determine one’s fate. Hinduism

8 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Hindus believe in a caste system (a belief that social class is inherited and doesn’t change throughout one’s life) The only way to change one’s caste is to be born into another one in the next life. Indian social structure is very complicated as there are several castes with divisions in each one. Hinduism

9 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Four Main castes: 1. priests and wise men, or Brahmans 2. warriors and rulers (Kshtriyas) 3. merchants, traders, and small farmers (Vaisyas) 4. Sudras or peasants and field workers A 5 th caste is even lower- the untouchables or pariahs, who do work no one else would do Hinduism

10 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Traditional families would not let their children marry someone from a different caste. Many jobs in India are still awarded on caste connections. The government is working to make caste divisions less important but change is slow. Hinduism

11 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Also began in India- 6% of world’s population- 4 th largest religion- largest number of followers are in Southern and Eastern Asia founded by Siddhartha Gautama, a rich young man, about 500 B.C. Had a life of luxury, but was troubled by the poverty and suffering around him Left his family, became a wandering monk hoping to learn why people had to suffer Buddhism

12 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Quit wandering to sit, think, and meditate about the unhappiness of man Thought he knew what needed to be done Believed people could find peace if they rejected greed and desire Accepted Hindu belief in reincarnation and karma, but rejected the caste system and the need for priests. Buddhism

13 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. He was “Buddha” or “The Enlightened One” to his followers. He taught there were Four Noble Truths 1. Life always brings pain 2. This suffering and sorrow is usually caused by greed and the desire for material things. Buddhism

14 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. 3. By giving up greedy desires, a person could end the suffering and reach Nirvana, a state of perfect peace 4. To achieve Nirvana a person needed to follow The Middle Way The Middle Way was accomplished by following what Buddha called the Eightfold Path (8 rules for conduct) Buddhism

15 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. 1. try to recognize the truth 2. try to avoid evil actions and bad people 3. do not say things that hurt others 4. respect other people and their belongings 5. choose a job that does no harm to others 6. do not think evil thoughts 7. avoid excitement or anger 8. work at meditation, thinking carefully about what matters in life Buddhism

16 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Unselfishness is the key to everything. Buddha recognized no gods. Saw no need for priests Man alone could change evil into good By following the Middle Way, ones soul would eventually reach a state of perfect peace Buddhism

17 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Second largest religion in the world. Only Christianity has more Widely practiced in Southern and Eastern Asia Began in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7 th century AD with the teachings of the prophet Muhammad. Gained followers rapidly in the years following his death. Islam

18 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Came to India in the 1500s AD when Muslim armies swept into the country. They established the Mogul Empire that ruled India for almost 200 years. Muslim conquerors treated the Hindus as conquered people and introduced Islam as a new religion. Islam

19 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Five Pillars of Islam: Believe there is only one god and Muhammad is his messenger Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca Charity to the poor Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a person’s lifetime Islam

20 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Monotheistic No organized priesthood, but gather in community mosques for prayer Muslims leaders for prayer and Muslim scholars Quran- holy book- the actual word of God handed down by the angel Gabriel Islam

21 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Muslims do not believe in the caste system Do not believe cows are sacred Have no rules against eating beef, although many will not eat pork as they believe the meat to be unclean Millions live in Southern and Eastern Asia Islam

22 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Earliest religion of Japan Shintoism literally means the “way of the gods” Centers on reverence for the kami, divine spirits that Shinto followers believe live in nature. Kami means superior Shinto

23 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. These divine spirits are believed to live in beautiful places, animals, and especially as a person’s ancestors. Many Japanese believe some of the mountains and rivers are the homes of these kami, and these places are considered sacred. Shintoism also stresses the virtue of cleanliness. Shinto

24 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Followers offer prayers and perform rituals to please and honor the kami or spirits they feel are special No elaborate philosophy in Shinto Religion does not stress life after death Most Japanese households have a small alter where the family will offer prayers to the spirits they hope will bless & protect them. Shinto

25 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Followers often create small beautiful gardens- areas of quiet and reflection in their crowded world. Shintoism once the state religion of Japan No longer the official religion, but still widely honored among the Japanese Shinto has followers around the world, but they’re few in number compared to other major religions Shinto

26 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Confucianism- thought of as a philosophy or ethical system based on good deeds and morality rather than a religion Confucius- one of the most important scholars in Chinese history. Born around 550 BC when government was having trouble keeping order and warlords controlled much of the countryside. Confucianism

27 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Confucius believed key to peace and social order was for people to behave with good character and virtue. Virtue= behaving fairly and with justice toward others His Golden Rule of Behavior was “What you do not like when done unto yourself, do no unto others.” Sound familiar? Confucianism

28 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. To Confucius a good ruler treated his people fairly and was kind to them. He was not a religious prophet or leader Saw himself as a teacher Confucius believed there were five basic relationships among men Confucianism

29 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. five basic relationships: 1.Ruler and subject 2.Father and son 3.Husband and wife 4.Older brother and younger brother 5.Friend and friend If each relationship was based on kindness, there would be peace and harmony. Confucianism

30 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Wudi, the Han emperor in 121 BC declared Confucianism to be the official guiding practice for the Chinese government during his reign. He hired Confucian scholars to be on his government staff This philosophy had a continuing effect on Chinese government for almost 2000 years Confucianism

31 b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism. Many Chinese still believe this is the way to behave even after the Communist takeover in Many others in Southern and Eastern Asia admire the teachings of Confucianism. Many historians see Confucianism as one of the foundations of Chinese society. Confucianism


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