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Belief Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Belief Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Belief Systems

2 Buddhism

3 Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in northern India around 560 BCE.
Gautama was born into a wealthy Hindu family, but renounced his wealth to seek spiritual enlightenment.

4 ~Buddhism spread through cultural diffusion to eastern Asia, including China, Thailand, Korea and Japan. ~In other areas, Buddhism was adapted and took on new forms.

5 Buddhism is based on the Four Noble Truths.
3. The way to eliminate suffering is to eliminate desire. 1. All life is suffering. 2. Suffering is caused by desire for things that are illusions. 4. Following the Eightfold path will help people to overcome desire.



8 Hinduism

9 Hinduism has no single founder, but originated from the mixing of Harappan and Aryan cultures in ancient India around 1500 BCE. Hindus believe in one unifying spirit, Brahman. Brahman can manifest in many, polytheistic, forms or in one, monotheistic.

10 Hinduism is based on the concept of reincarnation (Spirits return to earth many times in different forms trying to become one with Brahman). The soul moves up or down a hierarchy depending on their behavior in life. A person moves closer to Brahman by obeying the law of karma. Karma is the sum of all your deeds, good and bad. Good deeds involve following your dharma, or duties dependent on your position, gender and occupation.


12 The caste system (outlawed since 1948) was an important part of Hinduism. Castes are social classes into which a person is born and lives their entire life. If a person has a good karma they may be reincarnated into a higher caste. This life Next life Good Karma Higher caste Born into A caste Bad Karma Lower caste

13 The caste system separated Indian society into distinct social classes in which everyone knew their place and believed that if they followed the dharma of their caste, they would be reincarnated into a better caste. Brahmin Kshatriya Vaisya Sudra Untouchables

14 Over the centuries Hindu beliefs were recorded into a number of sacred texts including the Vedas and the Upanishads. The Ramayana is a Hindu creation story.

15 Buddhism has much in common with Hinduism, but there are important differences.
Buddhism like Hinduism: Reincarnation Karma Dharma But not Caste system Hindu gods Hindu priesthood

16 Sacred Buddhist Texts                                         Buddha did not record his teachings, but after he died, his followers collected them into the Tripitaka.

17 Today’s Tibetan Buddhists are led by the Dalai Lama, who advocates for freedom from China.

18 Islam

19 Islam originated in the Middle East around 622 CE with the Prophet, Muhammad. Muhammad was born in Mecca and traveled to Medina in a journey called the hijra, that became the founding of Islam. Muslim worshippers follow scriptures called the Quran, or Koran. The collection of Islamic laws is also known as the Sharia.

20 Five Pillars of Islam Faith in one God, Allah—monotheism
Five times daily prayer toward Mecca Help for the poor Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan Pilgrimage to holy city of Mecca

21 Spread of Islam--In the 150 years following the death of Muhammad, Islam spread through trade, missionaries and conquest into Asia and Africa.

22 Questions: Which two belief systems originated in India? Which religion gave rise to the caste system? How do religions spread? What are the Five Pillars of Islam? How are Hinduism and Buddhism alike and different?

23 Confucius Confucius is China’s best known philosopher.
He was born in about 551B.C. The disorder and suffering caused by constant warfare disturbed Confucius. He developed ideas about how to restore peace and ensure harmony.

24 Confucius Traveled Confucius visited the courts of various princes, hoping to convince them to put his ideas into practice. Disappointed by the princes refusals, he returned home, where he taught a small but loyal group of followers. After his death, his followers collected his teachings in the Analects.

25 Confucius’s Five Relationships
To restore order, Confucius taught that five relationships must govern human society. They are: 1.) the relationship between ruler & ruled 2.) the relationship between father & son 3.) the relationship between older brother & younger brother 4.) the relationship between husband & wife 5.) the relationship between friend & friend

26 In all but the last relationship (friend & friend), one person has authority over another.
In each, said Confucius, the superior person should set an example for the inferior one. “If a ruler himself is upright, all will go well without orders. But if he himself is not upright, even though he gives orders, they will not be obeyed.” According to Confucius, the superior person is also responsible for the well-being of the inferior person.

27 Confucius and the Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven- The Chinese believed that heaven granted a ruler the mandate, or right, to rule. The people, in turn, owed the ruler complete loyalty and obedience. Confucius supported the Mandate of Heaven. He said that the ruler must provide good government for his subjects. The rulers subjects, in turn, owed the ruler loyalty and obedience.

28 Confucius and Family To Confucius, relationships involving the family are the key to an orderly society. One of those relationships-the relationship between father and son-is very much like that between the ruler and the ruled. Like the ruler, the father must set an example for his son and look after his family. The father takes the credit, or the blame, for his children’s actions. The son, in turn, is expected to honor and obey his father. Confucius stressed the idea of filial piety, the duty and respect that children owe their parents.

29 The Influence of Confucius
Confucius created a guide to proper behavior based on ethical, or moral, principles. In his teachings, he placed the family and the good of society above the interests of the individual. He also stressed loyalty, courtesy, hard work, and service. He placed great emphasis on education. He said: “By nature, men are pretty much alike. It is learning and practice that set them apart.”

30 The importance of education, as well as other Confucian ideas, helped shape Chinese government.
In time, Confucian ideas came to dominate Chinese society. As China expanded across Asia, Confucianism influenced the cultures of Korea, Japan, and Vietnam as well.

31 Pop Quiz on Confucius Confucius believed that a superior person, like the ruler or a father, had the responsibility to set a good example for the inferior person, like the ruled or a son, because the superior person was responsible for the well-being of the inferior person. TRUE FALSE

32 Confucius on Education
Confucius believed that all men were pretty much equal despite the amount of education they had because of this he believed that education was a waste of time and did not set a good example for society. TRUE FALSE

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