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Greek History n Complex and sophisticated n motto: all things in moderation n they did nothing in moderation.

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Presentation on theme: "Greek History n Complex and sophisticated n motto: all things in moderation n they did nothing in moderation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Greek History n Complex and sophisticated n motto: all things in moderation n they did nothing in moderation

2 Ancient Greece n importance to Western culture n fundamental ideas and categories n Individualism and Humanism n the rise of Reason –decline of superstition/religion

3 Important Precursors n Minoan Crete n Mycenaean Greece

4 The eastern Mediterranean area

5 Minoan Crete n ca B.C. to 1450 B.C. –contemporary with Egypt n major, non-river valley culture n highly sophisticated n literate –Linear A and Linear B

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9 Minoan Crete, con’t n surplus agriculture n industry n over-seas commercial trade

10 Minoan Culture n elaborate towns and villages n complex religious ideas n sophisticated art n sports and leisure n high status for women

11 an artist’s rendering of the main building of the Palace of Minos at Knossos

12 Another idea of Knossos

13 North entrance of the Palace of Knossos Iraklion Museum, Crete

14 Decorated storage jars Knossos

15 Storage cellars palace of Knossos

16 Palace of Knossos Room of the Double Axes

17 Palace of Knossos: the Throne Room of Minos

18 Palace, north entrance: the famous Bull fresco

19 Great Propylaea at the south entrance of the palace

20 A fresco with partridges from the Caravan seraglio of Knossos.

21 From the Palace of Knossos: The famous "bull leaping" fresco from the East wing of the palace

22 The Throne of King Minos

23 The Queen’s rooms, with blue dolphins

24 Rython bull’s head from Knossos

25 Poppy Goddess

26 Snake “goddess” -goddess? -priestess? -worshipper?

27 The Blue Ladies

28 Minoan Priestess

29 Religious procession

30 Labrys “double axe” Labyrinth = “the House of the Double Axe”

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33 Temple entrance to a cave shrine

34 Minoan Culture, con’t n unwalled cities n no foreign invasions n few weapons n no civil conflict

35 Interpretation? n King Minos? n utopia? n matriarchy? n thalassocracy?

36 Contributions to Greeks n linguistic n olives, grapes, figs n place names n overseas movement

37 Mycenaeans n Bonze Age Greeks n B.C. n small, warrior states n war, trade, piracy n literate (Linear B)

38 Mycenaeans, con’t n the Heroic Age n the Age of Myth n the development of Greek Religion n beginnings of a common culture

39 Mycenae, ca.1450 B.C.

40 The great megaron at Mycenae

41 The death mask of “King Agamemnon” Mycenae

42 The Dark Ages n the Dorian Invasion ? n loss of literacy n loss of political sophistication

43 The Archaic Period n ca. 850 B.C. n beginning of classical Greek history n foundations of Western culture

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45 The Polis n the city-state n city and dependent territory n independence of each city n warfare and rivalry

46 The Ethnos n Greek tribal structures n villages n common cult centers n fringes of the Greek world

47 Rise of Literacy n the alphabet n Homer –the Iliad, the Odyssey n Hesiod –Works and Days, the Theogony n Lyric poetry –Sappho

48 Age of Colonization n ca B.C. n Spain to Russia n spread of Greek culture n contact with foreign peoples

49 Greek cities and colonies, B.C.

50 Varieties of Constitutions n Plato, Aristotle, Polybius n based on observation of types in Greece n thought of organically –three Good types, three Bad types –the anacyclosis

51 The Good Ones n monarchy (rule by one) n aristocracy (rule by the best) n constitutional government (rule by a body of law)

52 The Bad Ones n tyranny (extra-legal rule by one man) n oligarchy (rule by a faction) n democracy (rule by the people, without law)

53 Other forms n you name it n socialism, communism, utopianism n egalitarian between genders n etc.

54 Athens and Sparta n most available evidence n both are exceptions to the norm n both dominate the Greek world

55 Sparta n no colonization, conquest of neighbors n the constitution of Lycurgus n a perpetual military state n all citizens are subordinated to the state n no private property

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57 Rise of Tyrants n many states moved from monarchy to tyranny n rise of disenfranchised classes ? n rise of a new military form –the Hoplite soldier

58 Athens n evolution from monarchy to democracy n aristocracy, with elected rulers n Cylon and Draco n Solon: reform and timocracy n Peisistratus: a tyranny n Cleisthenes: the rise of democracy

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60 Cylon n attempted tyranny n faction struggle n blood-feuds n need for written law

61 Draco n first to write and post the laws n the homicide courts n did not solve social problems n threat of violent revolution n redistribute the land, cancel all debts

62 Enter Solon n chosen by all to avoid revolution n new constitution n beginnings of democracy n opened political offices n created protections for the people

63 Solon of Athens

64 Peisistratus n three attempts a tyranny n the Golden Age of Athens n used his own wealth n not a modern “tyrant”

65 Cleisthenes n defeated in “faction fighting” n became a “democrat” n reorganization of all citizens n breakdown of hereditary kinship groups n democracy

66 Persian Empire

67 The Persian Wars, B.C. n Ionian Revolt n invasion of Greece n Marathon n Thermopylae, Salamis, Plataea n the defining moment for Western culture

68 Themistocles

69 Leonidas

70 Hoplite phalanx: classical Greece

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80 The Rise of Athens n war of liberation and revenge against Persia n The Delian League n transformation into the Athenian Empire –burden of fighting: Athens –burden of cost: the Allies n the Periclean Age

81 Pericles of Athens

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85 The Peloponnesian War n Sparta and her Allies n Athens and her Allies n devastated Classical Greece n devastated both Sparta and Athens

86 Athens and Sparta: the Peloponnesian War

87 Thucydides

88 The Fourth Century n power vacuums, struggle for hegemony n Thebes n Federal leagues n military monarchies –Thessaly –Macedonia

89 The Rise of Macedonia n Philip of Macedon n Alexander the Great –the turning point of both Ancient and World history –no Alexander, then it’s a very different world

90 Alexander the Great

91 Conquests of Alexander n the Persian Empire, plus a little extra n rapid spread of Hellenism n the Successor Kingdoms –establishment of a permanent link –The West to China –never closed

92 Empire of Alexander the Great

93 Successor Kingdoms

94 Greek Culture and Civilization n foundations of Western thought n asked the important questions for the first time n gave the answers--that made sense--for the first time

95 Aeschylus

96 Greek Religion n Homer n Hesiod n polytheistic n civic n tolerant

97 Greek Religion, con’t n fully humanized gods n deorum pax n not concerned with morality n no regular priests or clergy n no “church and state”

98 Greek Religion, con’t n civic cults n private cults n mystery cults n oracles n atheists

99 Philosophy n some people were not satisfied by “religion” –but were not inclined to turn to non-civic cults n answers the “Big Questions” n deals with areas not covered by religion

100 Philosophy n love of wisdom n search for causes n search for why things happen n application of reason and demonstration

101 The Pre-Socratics: Natural Sciences n Thales: founder of philosophy n Xenophanes: the One n Empedocles: transmigration of souls n Heraclitus: the dialectic n Leucippus and Democritus: biological evolution and atomic theory n and so forth…..

102 The Sophists n Man is the measure of all things. n interest in human activities

103 Socrates n the turning point n movement toward ethics, metaphysics, etc. n away from natural sciences n “What is necessary to live the virtuous life?” n Goodness innate in the human mind

104 Socrates “The unexamined life is not worth living.”

105 Plato n taught in the dialogue form n concerned with how one acquires knowledge n chief concern: ethics n important for early Christian theology

106 Plato

107 Aristotle n primary concern: everything n organization of human knowledge n division of learn into fields and subfields n important for medieval Christianity

108 Aristotle

109 Stoics n concern with ethics, logic, and physics n cyclic universe n important for early Christianity

110 Other Important Schools n Cynics n Skeptics n Epicureans

111 Books for you to read n Barry Strauss. The Trojan War n Paul Cartledge. Thermopylae n E. Bradford. Thermopylae: The Battle for the West n A.R. Burns. Persia and the Greeks n D. Kagan. The Peloponnesian War n N.G. L. Hammond. A History of Greece n R. Sealy. The Greek Polis n Leonard Cottrell. The Bull of Minos

112 More Books n E. Gruen. The Hellenistic World n E. Gruen. The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome n W.W. Tarn. The Hellenistic World n W.W. Tarn. Alexander the Great n Ulrich Wilken. Alexander the Great n N.G.L. Hammond. Alexander of Macedon n Mark Munn. The School of Hellas

113 And More books n V. Ehrenberg. From Solon to Socrates n Christian Meier. Athens n J. Morris and B.B. Powell. The Greeks n O. Murray. Early Greece n J.K. Davies. Democracy and Classical Greece n W.F. Walbank. The Hellenistic World n R. Osbourne. The Making of Greece n A.H.M. Jones. Sparta


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