Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman"— Presentation transcript:
1Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
2I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East II I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East II. The Hellenistic Period III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic CultureIV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society
3I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East A. The Persians550 B.C.E., Cyrus the GreatEmpireConquered peoples retain cultureZoroasterGood vs. evilLast judgment
4I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East B. The Political Character of Classical GreeceVariety of polities Aristocracy generally dominantLiteracyFrom 8th century B.C.E.Iliad, OdysseyBasis for Hellenic cultureArchitectureColonnaded buildingsArtsSculpture Black and red potteryThe Greek World
5I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East C. The City-State as a Political UnitCity-states (polis)ParticipationAssemblies, councils500sConflict between aristocracy and middling class ReformSolon of AthensGreater participationPoleis deeply unitedPublic religionPolitical participationCultural events, e.g. theatre
6I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East D. The Rise of Democracy in AthensSolonPeisistratusCleisthenesCouncilPopular assemblyOversight of most of the governmentOffices filled by lotWho was excluded?WomenSlavesForeigners and their children
7Greece and Greek Colonies, c. 431 B.C.E. I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle EastE. Fragmentation and UnityColonizationSpread of Greek cultureExpansion of tradeReligious gamesTrucesCompetitionOlympicsDelphiConflict between citiesPersian WarsTemporary unityDelian LeagueDominated by AthensAthens versus SpartaPolitical contrastCompeting alliancesPeloponnesian War, B.C.E.Athenian surrender, 404 B.C.E.Greece and Greek Colonies, c. 431 B.C.E.
8II. The Hellenistic Period Spread of Greek rule, Greek cultureFormation of a common cultural areaMediterranean, Near EastA. Macedonian ConquestMacedon compared to southern GreeceMonarchy v. city-statePlains v. mountainousLinguistic differencesPhilip II ( B.C.E.)By 338 B.C.E., Greece conquered
9Alexander’s Empire and the Hellenistic World,, c. 323 B.C.E. II. The Hellenistic PeriodB. Alexander the GreatConquests, B.C.E.Into India, Egypt Cities foundedAlexandriaDeath, 323 B.C.E.Alexander’s Empire and the Hellenistic World,, c. 323 B.C.E.
10II. The Hellenistic Period C. Later Hellenistic StatesDivision“Successor states”Alexander’s generals ruleEgypt: PtolemiesRelative stabilityPersia: SeleucidsMacedonia: AntigonidsCivil warsBactriaBlend of Indian and Greek culture
11III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture A. Religion, Philosophy, and ScienceReligionPantheon of gods with human traitsMystery religionsMore emotionalPhilosophySocratesSkepticismPlatoStoicsMoral fortitudeSciencePythagorasEuclidGalenArchimedes
12III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture B. Literature and the Visual Arts DramaPublic, religious, typified by conflictSophoclesTragedyAristophanesComedyOral epicHomerHistoryHerodotusThucydidesVisual artsPublice.g. temples, victory sculptureHuman achievement centralEspecially in Hellenistic period
13III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture C. Hellenistic CultureFocus on exact sciencesGeometry, medicine, etc.Art more emotional, less idealizedPhilosophy emphasizes withdrawal, not engagement
14IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society A. Economic and Social StructureAristocracyPower from land, military roleEconomic expansion, colonizationChallenges role of aristocracyMerchantsAmbiguous place in societySlaveryFrom captivesB. Men, Women, and Social Divisions PatriarchyWomenLegal and cultural disabilitiesAdultery in men toleratedPunishable in womenSome improvement in Hellenistic period
15IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society C. A Complex LegacyIdeasNo lasting politiesArtistic legacyDirect and indirectConsciously imitated, revivedMingled with Middle Eastern legacy