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Greek History n Complex and sophisticated n motto: all things in moderation n they did nothing in moderation.

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Presentation on theme: "Greek History n Complex and sophisticated n motto: all things in moderation n they did nothing in moderation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Greek History n Complex and sophisticated n motto: all things in moderation n they did nothing in moderation

2 Ancient Greece n importance to Western culture n fundamental ideas and categories n Individualism and Humanism n the rise of Reason –decline of superstition/religion

3 Important Precursors n Minoan Crete n Mycenaean Greece

4 The eastern Mediterranean area

5 Minoan Crete n ca. 2900 B.C. to 1450 B.C. –contemporary with Egypt n major, non-river valley culture n highly sophisticated n literate –Linear A and Linear B




9 Minoan Crete, con’t n surplus agriculture n industry n over-seas commercial trade

10 Minoan Culture n elaborate towns and villages n complex religious ideas n sophisticated art n sports and leisure n high status for women

11 an artist’s rendering of the main building of the Palace of Minos at Knossos

12 Another idea of Knossos

13 North entrance of the Palace of Knossos Iraklion Museum, Crete

14 Decorated storage jars Knossos

15 Storage cellars palace of Knossos

16 Palace of Knossos Room of the Double Axes

17 Palace of Knossos: the Throne Room of Minos

18 Palace, north entrance: the famous Bull fresco

19 Great Propylaea at the south entrance of the palace

20 A fresco with partridges from the Caravan seraglio of Knossos.

21 From the Palace of Knossos: The famous "bull leaping" fresco from the East wing of the palace

22 The Throne of King Minos

23 The Queen’s rooms, with blue dolphins

24 Rython bull’s head from Knossos

25 Poppy Goddess

26 Snake “goddess” -goddess? -priestess? -worshipper?

27 The Blue Ladies

28 Minoan Priestess

29 Religious procession

30 Labrys “double axe” Labyrinth = “the House of the Double Axe”



33 Temple entrance to a cave shrine

34 Minoan Culture, con’t n unwalled cities n no foreign invasions n few weapons n no civil conflict

35 Mycenaeans n Bonze Age Greeks n 2000-1100 B.C. n small, warrior states n war, trade, piracy n literate (Linear B)

36 Mycenaeans, con’t n the Heroic Age n the Age of Myth n the development of Greek Religion n beginnings of a common culture

37 Mycenae, ca.1450 B.C.

38 The great megaron at Mycenae

39 The death mask of “King Agamemnon” Mycenae

40 The Dark Ages n the Dorian Invasion ? n loss of literacy n loss of political sophistication

41 The Archaic Period n ca. 850 B.C. n beginning of classical Greek history n foundations of Western culture


43 The Polis n the city-state n city and dependent territory n independence of each city n warfare and rivalry

44 Rise of Literacy n the alphabet n Homer –the Iliad, the Odyssey n Hesiod –Works and Days, the Theogony n Lyric poetry –Sappho

45 Greek cities and colonies, 750-650 B.C.

46 The Good Ones n monarchy (rule by one) n aristocracy (rule by the best) n constitutional government (rule by a body of law)

47 The Bad Ones n tyranny (extra-legal rule by one man) n oligarchy (rule by a faction) n democracy (rule by the people, without law)

48 Athens and Sparta n most available evidence n both are exceptions to the norm n both dominate the Greek world

49 Sparta n no colonization, conquest of neighbors n the constitution of Lycurgus n a perpetual military state n all citizens are subordinated to the state n no private property

50 Athens n evolution from monarchy to democracy n aristocracy, with elected rulers n Cylon and Draco n Solon: reform and timocracy n Peisistratus: a tyranny n Cleisthenes: the rise of democracy


52 Cylon n attempted tyranny n faction struggle n blood-feuds n need for written law

53 Draco n first to write and post the laws n the homicide courts n did not solve social problems n threat of violent revolution n redistribute the land, cancel all debts

54 Enter Solon n chosen by all to avoid revolution n new constitution n beginnings of democracy n opened political offices n created protections for the people

55 Solon of Athens

56 Persian Empire

57 The Persian Wars, 490-479 B.C. n Ionian Revolt n invasion of Greece n Marathon n Thermopylae, Salamis, Plataea n the defining moment for Western culture

58 Themistocles

59 Leonidas

60 Hoplite phalanx: classical Greece








68 The Rise of Athens n war of liberation and revenge against Persia n The Delian League n transformation into the Athenian Empire –burden of fighting: Athens –burden of cost: the Allies n the Periclean Age

69 Pericles of Athens



72 Greek Culture and Civilization n foundations of Western thought n asked the important questions for the first time n gave the answers--that made sense--for the first time

73 Philosophy n some people were not satisfied by “religion” –but were not inclined to turn to non-civic cults n answers the “Big Questions” n deals with areas not covered by religion

74 Philosophy n love of wisdom n search for causes n search for why things happen n application of reason and demonstration

75 Socrates n the turning point n movement toward ethics, metaphysics, etc. n away from natural sciences n “What is necessary to live the virtuous life?” n Goodness innate in the human mind

76 Socrates “The unexamined life is not worth living.”

77 Plato n taught in the dialogue form n concerned with how one acquires knowledge n chief concern: ethics n important for early Christian theology

78 Plato

79 Aristotle n primary concern: everything n organization of human knowledge n division of learn into fields and subfields n important for medieval Christianity

80 Aristotle

81 The Peloponnesian War n Sparta and her Allies n Athens and her Allies n devastated Classical Greece n devastated both Sparta and Athens

82 Athens and Sparta: the Peloponnesian War

83 The Rise of Macedonia n Philip of Macedon n Alexander the Great –the turning point of both Ancient and World history –no Alexander, then it’s a very different world

84 Alexander the Great

85 Conquests of Alexander n the Persian Empire, plus a little extra n rapid spread of Hellenism n the Successor Kingdoms –establishment of a permanent link –The West to China –never closed

86 Empire of Alexander the Great

87 Successor Kingdoms

88 Books for you to read n Barry Strauss. The Trojan War n Paul Cartledge. Thermopylae n E. Bradford. Thermopylae: The Battle for the West n A.R. Burns. Persia and the Greeks n D. Kagan. The Peloponnesian War n N.G. L. Hammond. A History of Greece n R. Sealy. The Greek Polis n Leonard Cottrell. The Bull of Minos

89 More Books n E. Gruen. The Hellenistic World n E. Gruen. The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome n W.W. Tarn. The Hellenistic World n W.W. Tarn. Alexander the Great n Ulrich Wilken. Alexander the Great n N.G.L. Hammond. Alexander of Macedon n Mark Munn. The School of Hellas

90 And More books n V. Ehrenberg. From Solon to Socrates n Christian Meier. Athens n J. Morris and B.B. Powell. The Greeks n O. Murray. Early Greece n J.K. Davies. Democracy and Classical Greece n W.F. Walbank. The Hellenistic World n R. Osbourne. The Making of Greece n A.H.M. Jones. Sparta

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