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Cell structure & function BRIEF OVERVIEW & REVIEW.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell structure & function BRIEF OVERVIEW & REVIEW."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell structure & function BRIEF OVERVIEW & REVIEW

2 Intro The first time that a cell was discovered was seventeenth century by Antoine van Leeuwenhoek.

3 Chapter goals To understand the function and structure of cells. We do not spend a ton of time lecturing about specific organelles. For this chapter, individual reading and reviewing is self-regulated. AS you read….think about structure and function

4 Vocabulary  Prokaryotic  Eukaryotic  DNA  RNA  Various organelles

5 Cell theory 1.All living things are made up of one or more cells. 2.Cells are the basic units of structure & function of all living things. 3.All cells come from pre-existing cells.

6 Birth of Complex Cells  How did cells get to be so complex?  Why are there still cells that are “simple”  How do we classify cells?

7 3 Domains  What are the three domains?

8 3 Domains  What are the three domains?  Domain Prokarya  Domain Archaebacteria  Domain Eukarya

9 Eykarya  Fungi  Protists  Plantae  Animalia

10 Difference between prokaryotes and Eukaryotes  Turn to your buddy and tell them the difference.

11 Difference between prokaryotes and Eukaryotes  Turn to your buddy and tell them the difference.

12 YOUR HOMEWORK  Read and answer at least 80% of the questions at end of chapter

13 Prokaryotic cell  Monerans  Very small (1 to 10 microns)  No nucleus, no organelles  First prokaryotes cells 3.5 billion years ago

14 Eukaryotes  Fungi, animal, plant  Relatively large (10 to 100 microns)  Complex structure  First eukaryotes cells 1.5 billion years ago

15 Non membrane organelles  Ribosome  Centriole (animal)  microtubules

16 Single membrane organelles  Vacuoles  Lysosomes  Vesicles  Endoplasmic reticulum  Golgi apparatus  Peroxisomes  Endomembrane system

17 Double membrane organelles  Mitochondria  Chloroplast (plant)  KNOW THESE

18 Plant Cell

19 Animal Cell

20 Cell structure and functions Cell structure/ organellstructurefunction Plasma membrane Phospholipid Bilayer embedded with proteins Defines cell boundary regulation of molecule passage nucleus Nuclear evolope surrounding nucleoplasm Storage of genetic material (DNA)

21 nucleolus Concentrated area of chromatin; RNA -> proteins Ribosomal functions Ribosomes Two units small subunit & Large subunit Build proteins; can build a protein in one minute Centriole 9 groups of 3 arranged as a cylinder Cell division Pulls chromosoms apart

22 Rough ER smooth ER Series of tubes and flattened membranes transport, detoxify of poison Golgi apparatus Similar to ER “stacks of pancakes” Modification of lipids, package of store Lysosome Liquid filled sac digest

23 Mitochondria Shaped like rounded cigars Uses ATP for aerobic respiration chloroplast Disk like stacks Light and dark reaction cytoplasm Jelly-like substances Allows movement with in cell, where chemical reactions occur

24 cytoskeleton Network of protein fibers and microtubules Provides structure and support to cell Cell wall Provides support and structure Endomembrane system For transport

25 microtubules Resemble strings of beads Transport Structure and movement Pull apart chromosomes Vesicles Liquid filled sac Package liquids and substances Peroxisomes Like lysosomes Break down fatty acids, a. a. and alcohol

26 Cilia and flagella Whip like fails on hair like projections Used for movement vacuole Liquid filled sac Stores water, food and waste chromatin Tangled mass of DNA Stores genetic info

27 Review Highlights  Cell theory  Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell  Animal and plant cell

28 Diffusion  Concentration gradient: move high to low –Concentration change in a particular direction –Results from kinetic energy  Particles in areas of greater concentration are more likely to “bounce” towards areas of lesser concentration. –NOT affected by other substances –NO energy expended by the cell –How do you change the rate of diffusion?

29 Osmosis  Diffusion of WATER down a concentration gradient across selectively permeable membrane  Which way does water move across a membrane?

30 Osmosis (cont.)  Isotonic –Solution concentration is equal on both sides of the membrane, so no NET diffusion/osmosis  Hypotonic –Solution inside the cell is more concentrated than outside –Water will move into the cell  Animal cell: bursts  Plant cell: vacuole expands, becomes turgid  Hypertonic –Solution outside the cell is more concentrated than inside –Water will move out of the cell  WATER ALWAYS MOVES HYPO  HYPER!

31 The End

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