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4.2 Organelles.

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Presentation on theme: "4.2 Organelles."— Presentation transcript:

1 4.2 Organelles

2 Cell Boundaries Plasma (Cell) Membrane Function: Surrounds cell
Allows specific things things in and out (homeostasis) Fact: Selectively permeable – allows water and nutrients to in, waste out Made of phospholipids Found in: Prokaryotes Eukaryotes

3 Cell Boundaries 2. Cell wall 1. Cell membrane Cell Wall Function:
Surrounds cell membrane to provide extra support and protection Fact: Made of cellulose in plants Found in: Prokaryotes Eukaryotes (plants) 2. Cell wall 1. Cell membrane

4 Cell control Nucleus Nucleus Nucleus Function: Controls the organelles
Contains DNA – gives instructions for making proteins Fact: “Command center” or “brain” of the cell Most prominent structure Found in: Eukaryotes Nucleus

5 Cell control Chromatin Function:
Condense to form chromosomes in nucleus Fact: Strands of DNA that look like spaghetti Found in: Eukaryotes

6 Cell control Nucleolus Nucleolus Nucleolus Function: Makes ribosomes
Fact: Found inside the nucleus Found in: Eukaryotes Nucleolus

7 Cell control Ribosomes Ribosomes Function: Makes proteins Fact:
Made of RNA Can be free in cytoplasm or attached to ER Found in: Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Ribosomes

8 Cell control Nuclear Envelope/Membrane Function:
Controls what enters/exits the nucleus Fact: Surrounds the nucleus Found in: Eukaryotes

9 Cell Control Centrioles Function: Fact: Found in:
Involved in cell reproduction Fact: Made from microtubules 2 are paired at right angles Found in: Eukaryotes (animal cells)

10 Cell Assembly Cytoplasm Function: Suspends/holds organelles
Site of chemical reactions Fact: Contains clear gel-like fluid called cytosol Found in: Eukaryotes Prokaryotes

11 Cell Assembly Round Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Function:
Produces proteins Fact: Helps move molecules throughout the cell Found in: Eukaryotes

12 Cell Assembly Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Function:
Produces lipids (steroids) Detoxifies poisons Fact: Helps move molecules throughout the cell Found in: Eukaryotes

13 Cell Assembly Golgi Golgi Apparatus Function:
Processes, packs, and secretes proteins and lipids Fact: Works closely with ER Flattened stack of membranes Found in: Eukaryotes Golgi

14 Cell Assembly Vacuole Vacuole Function:
Stores food, water, waste, proteins, carbs Fact: Helps maintain homeostasis Found in: Eukaryotes (plants have a LARGE vacuole) Vacuole

15 Cell Assembly Lysosome Lysosomes Function:
Uses enzymes to digest old organelles and foreign objects (bacteria, viruses) Fact: “Suicide sacs” Found in: Eukaryotes Lysosome

16 Cell Assembly Ever wonder how a tadpole gets rid of its tail and grows legs???? It’s lysosomes digest the cells in the tail, and these molecules are released to build different cells, like legs!

17 Energy Transformers Chloroplast Chloroplast Function:
Capture light and convert it to chemical energy during photosynthesis Fact: Glucose (sugar) is made Found in: Eukaryotes (plants) Chloroplast

18 Energy Transformers Mitochondria Mitochondria Function:
Breaks down food into ATP energy during cellular respiration Fact: “Powerhouse” of the cell Found in: Eukaryotes Mitochondria

19 Support & Locomotion Cytoskeleton Function:
Maintains the shape & supports the cell Fact: Made of microfilaments & microtubules Found throughout the cytoplasm Found in: Eukaryotes Prokaryotes

20 Microtubules

21 Support & Locomotion Cilia Function: Movement of cells or fluids Fact:
Short hair-like fibers Found in: Eukaryotes Prokaryotes

22 Support & Locomotion Cilia Flagella Flagella Function:
Movement of cells Fact: Long hair-like fibers Found in: Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Flagella

23 Levels of Organization
Organelles  CellsTissuesOrgansOrgan systemsOrganisms

24 Animal & Plant Comparison
Plant Cells Animal Cells Have centrioles No chloroplasts No cell walls Do not have centrioles Have chloroplasts Have cell walls

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