2 EXPOSUREDefinition: The act of allowing light to strike a light-sensitive surface. The amount of light reaching a surface, controlled by the combination of the aperture and shutter speed.Overexposed: Too LightUnder Exposed: Too DarkHow to adjust it: Through the use of aperture and shutter speed. Most digital cameras have an additional “number line” to assist in adjusting lightness and darkness.4
3 APERTUREDefinition: A small, circular opening inside the lens that can change in diameter to control the amount of light reaching the camera's sensor as a picture is taken.f-stop: the aperture setting. The lower the f-stop number, the wider the lens opening (more light). Think of the f-stop is how much light is being stopped? A little light is being stopped is a little number and a lot of light. A lot of light being stopped would be a higher number or a darker picture.Depth of field: The distance between the nearest and farthest points that appear in sharp focus in a photograph. The smaller the f-stop, only close items are in focus. The bigger the f-stop, the further the distance of things that are in focus.How to adjust: By changing the f-stops.6
5 SHUTTER SPEEDDefinition: The length of time that the sensor or film is exposed to light.How to measure it? In fractions of a second. The slower the shutter speed, the longer the exposure time. When the shutter speed is set to 1/125 or simply 125, this means that the shutter will be open for exactly 1/125th of one second. The longer the shutter is open, the more light is let in. The longer the shutter is open also allows for more blurring of a moving subject (or the photographer holding the camera).How to adjust it: Shutter Speed Setting7
8 ISO: International Standards Organization, a standardized industry scale for measuring sensitivity to lightDefinition: A rating of a film's sensitivity to light. The rating doubles each time the sensitivity doubles. Though digital cameras don't use film, they have adopted the same rating system for describing the sensitivity of the camera's imaging sensor.Noise: pixels of random colors and brightness, usually found in dark areas of an image.How to measure it? In numbers. The lower the number (100) the more light you need present (like day light. Your photograph will also be more crisp. The higher number ISO’s are good for gathering information in darker settings, but you increase your possibility of having noise in the picture.How to adjust it: ISO setting10
10 WHITE BALANCEDefinition: is the process of removing unrealistic color casts, so that objects which appear white in person are rendered white in your photo. The tints provide a complement of the colors in present in each light setting to neutralize the white tones.Tungsten: Used indoors under light bulbs (which usually cast a warm color)Fluorescent: used indoors with fluorescent bulbs (which usually cast a cool color)How to measure it? In lighting conditions: automatic, daylight, shade, tungsten, fluorescent…How to adjust it: White balance setting
12 Controller Modes Auto the camera is in control. Program Mode (P) Camera controls most things, but the user can make adjustments.Shutter Priority (Tv)User chooses the shutter speed and the camera picks the aperture.Aperture Priority (Av)User chooses the aperture and camera picks shutter speed.Full Manual (M)You select the aperture and the shutter speed.3
13 More pixels, more detail Optical ViewfinderShutter ReleaseManualControls “noise”. Lower # iso = sunnyHigh # iso = dim lightExposure.Darker+ BrighterAutomaticFlashWhite BalanceLandscapeFocus.Press shutter release half way to gain a focal point.MacroPixels.More pixels, more detailSize.The bigger, the better.
14 Pixel ﾐ Picture Element: digital photographs are comprised of thousands or millions of them; they are the building blocks of a digital photo.
15 What adjustments could be made to the following photos? 1515
24 Quality of Light in Black and White Final Product: Three, Strong, Black & White images that have a full range in values.The process:- This is an individual project.50 thumbnail images.Each image needs to have a strong source of light and NO FLASH.Each image will have an intentional composition.These photos will be taken during your class period.You will only be using natural lighting- which means your photographs will be taken of people or objects in light coming from a window. (Weather permitting, we may go outside as a class).24
25 - Is the photograph something interesting to look at? As you help your group members select their best 3 photos, consider the following:- Is the photograph something interesting to look at?Is the photograph in focus?Is there a full range of values present?What do you like about the photograph?What do you think could make the photograph better?(look at the vocab list and poster on the shelf or in your notes for a reminder on camera functions)25