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Digital Photography I Photography I Aperture ISO Shutter Speed.

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Presentation on theme: "Digital Photography I Photography I Aperture ISO Shutter Speed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digital Photography I Photography I Aperture ISO Shutter Speed

2 The Exposure Triangle Digital Photography I

3 Exposure This is by far the most technical lesson of this session. However it is essential to begin to get a grasp of the exposure triangle concept. You must refer to your personal camera manual in order to completely understand how to use the creative modes. Be sure to take notes when necessary.

4 Exposure Exposure is the total amount of light that you allow into the camera

5 Exposure Triangle Changing any of the three elements will effect the exposure Aperture Shutter Speed ISO Aperture and shutter speed are inversely proportional to each other.

6 Exposure Triangle

7 Camera Configuration Digital Sensor Shutter Aperture Lens

8 Exposure Too much light results in an over-exposed image where there are areas of bright white or ’blow-outs’. These areas contain no detail or color. 8

9 Exposure Too little light results in an under-exposed image where there are areas of low detail. 9

10 Vatican, Rome Great differences in light within a photograph confuses the camera. The camera exposes to the bright light, therefore the darker portions of the photograph are blacked out. Exposure

11 Shutter Speed

12 Posing for 19 th century photographs Usually took as much a 5 minutes of Sitting perfectly still. Luckily, today we can control Shutter speeds. Opelika, AL

13 Shutter Speed Shutter Speed—the amount of time the shutter is open— which determines how much light is captured in the recording process – Measured in seconds: super fast 1/2000 second to 30 seconds – The slower the speed, the longer light can enter the camera. Appropriate for shooting pictures in darker situations; also great for freezing action and movement 13 Shutter speeds and aperture (f-stops) are inversely proportional.

14 Shutter Speed 14 Callaway Gardens Steeple Chase Action shots require fast shutter speeds.

15 Shutter Speed Shutter speed is measure in fractions of a second. A shutter speed greater than 1/60 th second requires the use of a stabilizing device like a tripod. Without stabilization, the photograph will not be crisp and clear. 15

16 Low Light requires longer shutter speeds and a tripod Full 1 second shutter speed Langdale Mill

17 Low Light requires longer shutter speeds and a tripod

18 Shutter Speed Must use A tripod Best for Sports shots

19 ISO

20 ISO is the measurement of how sensitive the image sensor in the camera is to light. – Measured in numbers 100, 200, 400, 800, etc. – Use a lower number when smooth crisp images are need and you have plenty of light. – Higher numbers are used when light is limited, you do not want to use a flash, or the subject is moving; may result in grainy images 20

21 The Exposure Triangle ISO – International Organization of Standardization ISO—the measurement of the sensitivity of the camera image sensor to light. Measured in numbers 100, 200, 400, 800, etc. – Lower numbers used when smooth crisp images are desired and you have plenty of light. – Higher numbers are used when light is limited, you do not want to use a flash, or the subject is moving; may result in grainy images 21

22 ISO ISO is the measurement of the sensitivity of the camera image sensor to light. An ISO of around 200 is average. 22

23 ISO An ISO of around 200 is average. Lower numbers are used when smooth crisp images are needed and you have plenty of light. Below

24 ISO An ISO of around 200 is average. Lower numbers are used when smooth crisp images are needed and you have plenty of light. Below

25 ISO Higher numbers are used in limited light conditions, Flash is not desirable subject is moving May result in grainy images and above

26 Choosing ISO Setting 100 to Outside Bright Sun Shade or overcast conditions Bright light indoors Stormy day – Low light indoors

27 Higher ISO 400 ISO 800 ISO Light is limited and flash was not desirable in either shot.

28 ISO Too little light can leave parts of your image too dark to make out details. If the ISO had been higher this photograph would have been brighter. 28 Trevi Fountain, Rome ISO 200

29 High ISO This photo taken with ISO 800. Notice the grainy appearance. This is called noise. 29 Rome by night

30 Notice the camera exposes to the light not the bride. ISO More advanced cameras have a mechanism that will allow you to expose to individual areas with in the shot.

31 Aperture

32 Aperture f-stops Aperture is the camera feature that regulates the amount of light that passes through the lens by controlling the size of the opening in the lens. It is measured in f/stops.

33 Aperture f-stops Stopping down Aperture is the camera feature that regulates the amount of light that passes through the lens by controlling the size of the opening in the lens. Described as the f/stop the smaller the number the wider the lens will open

34 Aperture f-stops The common range for f-stops goes from f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22 f/8 is a good average aperture where Most everything will be in focus. Narrow depth of field Infinite depth of field

35 F/stops and depth of field Depth of Field decreases Depth of Field increases Lower f stops need less light to expose Higher f stops need more light to expose F /22 f/2 f/8

36 Aperture f-stops Full f-stops go from f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22, f/32 Each full stop value increase, decreases the light entering the camera by half. Fast lensSlow lens Shorter shutter speed Longer shutter speed Narrow depth of field Large depth of field

37 Aperture 37 More exposed Longer Shutter Speeds Greater Depth of field Narrower Depth of Field

38 Shutter Aperture Relationship The smaller the aperture, the longer the shutter speed The larger the aperture, the shorter the shutter speed.

39 Sunny Sixteen Rule The "rule of sunny-16" is simply a handy trick to remember away to set proper exposure when the sun is high in the sky And casts strong shadow on a bright day. The camera aperture is set to f/16 (hence the -16 in sunny-16). dark shadows. The sunny sixteen rule was NOT used in this photoghraph.

40 Sunny Sixteen Rule Aperturestopsconditions f/22-1 stop snow or beach f/16sunny-16 bright daylight dark shadows f/11+1 stop weak or hazy sun sun low in sky f/8+2 stops cloudy bright f/5.6+3 stops darker clouds subject in shadow f/4+4 stops sunset Aperture Stops Conditions

41 Issues with each exposure point Changing any of the three elements will effect the exposure Aperture Shutter Speed ISO Aperture and shutter speed are inversely proportional to each other. Motion Blur Depth of Field Noise

42 Manual Settings Dial

43 Creative Camera Modes Point and Shoot Modes Creative modes

44 Program Mode Shutterspeed (exposure) and Aperture are set in unison automatically. When you change the shutter speed, the aperture changes automatically When you change the aperture, the shutter speed changes automatically P

45 Aperture Priority Mode Av In AV mode, the aperture remains constant. By turning the main dial on your camera, you can adjust the shutter speed. The aperture remains the same. Use Av when : Want everything In focus (use high f/stop) OR Want the background to be out of Focus (use low f/stop)

46 Shutter Priority Mode Tv Action shot mode In Tv mode, the shutter speed remains constant. By turning the main dial on your camera, you can adjust the aperture. The shutter speed remains the same.

47 Manual exposure mode In M mode, the aperture and the shutter speed can be altered. By turning the main dial on your camera, you can adjust the shutter speed. The aperture remains the same. Read your camera manual to determin how to set boththe Av and the Tv In the Canon Rebel Set the Tv by turning the dial Set the Av by holding down the Av button and turning the dial.

48 Manual exposure mode In the Canon Rebel Set the Tv by turning the dial Set the Av by holding down the Av button while turning the dial.

49 Manual exposure mode In the Canon Rebel Set the Tv by turning the dial Set the Av by holding down the Av button while turning the dial. The standard exposure level is achieved when the slide bar is located in the center. This meter may be viewed on the LCD screen or through the view finder

50 AE Lock Consult your camera manual for AE lock steps Exposed to the light (normal ) Exposed to a chosen darker subject in the photo ( AE lock)

51 Automatic Depth of Field Canon's auto depth of field (A-DEP) feature works by (1) finding the nearest and furthest of all the autofocus points, (2) setting the camera's focusing distance to optimally position the depth of field between these nearest and furthest points, and (3) setting the aperture so that the edges of the depth of field extend far enough to contain these nearest and furthest points.

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