Presentation on theme: "Camera Basics What is a photograph and why do we take pictures? What is a camera?"— Presentation transcript:
Camera Basics What is a photograph and why do we take pictures? What is a camera?
Pieces: Things that make a Camera Work and Why Shell/ Body: Protects the inside, contains the insides Lens: collects light reflected from the subject and focuses it at the exact point occupied by the film Aperture: Located in lens, not camera body. Controls the amount of time that light passing through the aperture is allowed to act on the film. Shutter: Controls amount of light coming in and out, located in camera body. ISO (International Standards Organization): measures light sensitivity
SLR: What does it stand for? Most commonly used Moving mirror system in front of shutter allows photographer to see exactly what will be captured by film Advantages of SLR: Lens you look through same as lens shooting the picture What you see in the viewfinder is same as recorded on film Range of lenses makes SLR versatile Disadvantages of SLR: Expensive Mechanical complexity makes them prone to failure Heavier and more awkward
Shutters/ Lenses: 1.Leaf Shutter: more accurate 2.Focal plane: 2 pieces of plastic that open/ close Focal Length: distance between film and lens Standard: mm Lens: tube with glass that allows and focuses light Controlling Shutter Speed: Shutter: opens and let light in and then closes (think of it as a sophisticated door) Slower= more light ex: 1 Faster= less light ex: 500
Settings Aperture: Device that controls/ allows amount of light in Calibrated in F stops, controls depth of field and affects exposure. Bigger F-stop: smaller opening: less light Example: 2.8 F-stop: more light in 22 F-stop: less light in *Aperture #’s range from 1.8 (big opening)- 64 (small opening) (F-Stop is a fraction that measures the amount of stop) Determined by measuring the length of the lens and the width: If the lens is 200mm, and the width is 50mm, the F-Stop is f4.0 Because: a width of 50mm is ¼ the length of 200mm So: An f4 is much larger than an f8 Helpful Hint: a ¼ inch hose is bigger than a 1/8 inch hose Therefore: a ¼ inch opening lets more stuff through than a 1/8 inch opening
Why does the F-Stop Matter? 1.It controls the amount of light coming in. a.Big window= More light (remember smaller number) b.Smaller window= Less light (bigger number) 2.It helps control Depth of Field *Depth of field is the amount of stuff in focus vs. the amount of stuff blurred* a.Big Window= More bend= More blur b.Smaller Window= Less Bend= Less blur *Aperture HELPS control Depth of Field (range where you have sharp focus), it is not the only variable in this equation. Selecting a large aperture does not guarantee depth of field: Distance from Camera to Subject matters too. *Smaller Aperture gives less blur in reference to subject vs. background. It does not give less blur for other things such as motion.
Larger aperture bending light more- blurrier (smaller F-stop #) Clearer Shallow depth allows focus on one focal point, other things blur
Understanding the Numbers: Think of different items you can see light through: a fire hose, a garden hose, and a straw F-stops in relation to these items: F2.8 is a fire hose- f8 is a garden hose- f16 is a straw (light coming through each)
ISO (International Standards Organization) Measures light sensitivity Low ISO (ex: 100): portraits, objects not moving, bright sunny days High ISO; sports, fast moving action Low ISO Benefits: Better color Crisp Clear Would you use a high ISO or a low ISO to photograph a person sledding? What about your puppy taking a nap?
Example of Aperture Settings in Relation to Image
To Make a Photograph: 1.Light 2.Light Sensitive Surface 3.Way to control light 3 Ways to Control Light: 1.Intensity (aperture) 2.Duration (shutter) 3.Sensitivity of light sensitive surface (ISO)