Presentation on theme: "DBQ FROM AP WORLD HISTORY: AN ESSENTIAL COURSE BOOK BY ETHEL WOOD QUESTION: USING THE DOCUMENTS, ANALYZE THE CONCEPTS THAT RULERS HAD OF THEMSELVES, AS."— Presentation transcript:
DBQ FROM AP WORLD HISTORY: AN ESSENTIAL COURSE BOOK BY ETHEL WOOD QUESTION: USING THE DOCUMENTS, ANALYZE THE CONCEPTS THAT RULERS HAD OF THEMSELVES, AS WELL AS EXPECTATIONS THAT SUBJECTS HAD OF THEIR RULERS, DURING THE PERIOD FROM 1450 TO 1750. IDENTIFY ONE ADDITIONAL TYPE OF DOCUMENT AND EXPLAIN BRIEFLY HOW IT WOULD HELP YOUR ANALYSIS. Age of Absolutism
Divine right- claim that power was granted through God Powerful military- Gunpowder technology establishing empire (maritime for European powers) religious wars were fought. Competition over colonies Harsh laws- don’t threaten the power of the monarch or…off with your head(must protect power at all costs)
18 th Century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society
Until 1700’s, people of France accepted the fact that their king ruled by divine right Philosophes: intelligent, reasonable men who felt there was much about life in Europe that was unfair…
Renaissance humanism Secularism- movement away from the church Democratic reform (creation of legislative bodies and rise of bourgeosie (new wealth class) Perhaps confuciaism brought back by Jesuit missionaries Coffe houses and salons Growth of universities and royal patronage
This doc from the Safavid Empire suggests a very complimentary vision by his secretary identifying his knowledge of the world and” He has cultivated diplomatic relations with most of the princes of the world, and the rulers of the most distant parts of Europe, Russia, and India are on friendly terms with him. Foreign ambassadors bearing gifts are never absent from his court, and the Shah’s achievements in the field of foreign relations exceed those of his predecessors.” Can be grouped politically or by Muslim rule or favorably or by someone who works for the Monarch
As a female ruler she must earn the trust of her military to help defeat the mighty Spanish Armada “I know I have the body of a weak, feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king – and of a King of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which, rather than any dishonor should grow by me, I myself will take up arms – I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of everyone of your virtues in the field”- she caters to their patriarchal notions of women and also the embodiment of religious values ( she was their Virgin Queen taking on a Christian persona) This can be grouped politically, culturally by European or favorably think of what will England’s gain be when they defeat the Spanish Armada
A very grandiose vision of his absolute rule ( either as a legacy, egocentric or a justification of his rule “I am God’s slave and sultan of this world. By the grace of God I am head of Muhammad’s community. God’s might and Muhammad’s miracles are my companions. I am Suleiman, in whose name the hutbe [sermon] is read in Mecca and Medina. In Baghdad I am the shah, in Byzantine realms the Caesar, and in Egypt the sultan; who sends his fleets to the seas of Europe, the Maghrib and India ” This can be grouped by Muslim rule, politically, religiously or by the highest favorable praise possible( note its on a citadel which is a military fortification)
Someone, again, working for the absolute monarch who serves to justify the divine right (God- granted) to rule “Behold an immense people united in a single person; behold this power, paternal and absolute; behold the secret cause which governs the whole body of the state, contained a single head: you see the image of God in the king, and you have the idea of royal majesty. God is holiness itself, goodness itself, and power itself. This can be grouped by European, with #1 as someone who works for the monarch, by religious or political. He is a representative of the Roman Catholic church and a staunch defender of divine right(nobless oblige-noble obligations to serve the populace
Peter the Great’s intention to “Westernize” selectively with some amount of suspicion trying to consolidate his authority while,at the same time, trying to move Russia ahead “For this end we have always tried to maintain internal order, to defend the state against invasion, and in every possible way to improve and to extend trade. With this purpose we have been compelled to make some necessary and salutary changes in the administration, in order that our subjects might more easily gain knowledge of matters of which they were before ignorant, and become more skillful in their commercial relations.” This can be grouped economically, politically, by an even headed view of his own real ( to be compared with the over the top views of the other empires) moderate westernization program ( remember warm water ports and his window to the west: St Petersburg)
This foreigner ( to be compared with those sources from within the Empires) sees the ethnocentric manner of rule of China and is quite critical of it “The extent of their kingdom is so vast, its borders so distant, and their utter lack of knowledge of a trans maritime world is so complete that the Chinese imagine the whole world as included in their kingdom” yet is impressed by some of the components of the size ( but lacking maritime power) This can be grouped unfavorably, moderately, by an outsider, politically, economically or culturally. Remember Ricci’s greatest goal was the conversion of Chinese to Roman Catholicism which may have tainted his view of the Chinese under the Ming Dynasty. Remember the transmission of learning from each area ( China received quinine, accurate maps and calendars while Europe received inoculations, enlightened ideas, and trading items like silk, porcelain and lacquer ware
From 1450-1750 the Age of Absolutism saw rule through divine right monarchies or the Mandate of Heaven, all economic decisions of empire building or foreign trade rested in the hands of Sultans, monarchs, Shah’s and Emperors, not all people saw the great rule in the grandiose manners that these rulers needed to justify their authority. An additional documents from a religious minority ( Huguenot in Louis XIV after revocation of Edict of Nantes) might provide a greater perspective as to those who might be opposed to the absolute rule.
Enlightened thinkers like John Locke who believed that government should come from the consent of the governed and might attempt to overthrow these governments. Thomas Hobbe’s Leviathan who supported the idea of an enlightened monarch to do what was best for the people. Catherine the Great as an enlightened despot to determine who she utilized her power benevolently ? A serf whose life in Russia became worse under the absolute rule of the Romanov’s A Parliamentarian in England whose desire for more power would eventually cause the English civil law and create the first Bill of rights A scientist in England whose royal sponsorship pays for technological breakthroughs which would advance the cause of both the public and private sphere.