2The Reaction Against Absolutism OutlineAbsolutismTimelineImportant ConceptsAbsolute RulersThe Reaction Against AbsolutismEngland
3Timeline of Absolutism 150015501575162516501675170015251600
4Timeline of Absolutism Akbar the Great (India)Louis XIV (France)150015501575162516501675170015251600Ferdinand and Isabella of SpainCharles (Spain)Philip II (Spain)Peter the Great (Russia)
5Important Concepts Monarchy Divine Right Absolutism Machiavelli Thomas Hobbes
6First thing’s first: What is a monarchy? A type of governmentWhere the ruler inherits power through the family line
7Real Life Example? Queen Elizabeth II Prince Charles Prince Harry Prince William
8Divine Right Belief that kings were allowed to rule by God What was this idea called in China?Mandate of Heaven!
9Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, 1679 “Behold an immense people united in a single person; behold this holy power, paternal and absolute…you see the image of God in the king, and you have the idea of royal majesty.Kings, exercise your power then boldly, for it is divine and salutary for human kind...”
10AbsolutismWhen monarchs ruled with total power (aka centralized power)What can an absolute king do?ABSOLUTELY ANTHING!!!
11Can an absolute monarch… Enforce a national dress code?Imprison and kill my enemies without trials?Start my own religion and force everyone to follow it?Spend all of my citizens money on parties?
12Machiavelli Wrote The Prince to guide rulers Better to be FEARED than LOVED
13Thomas Hobbes Wrote The Leviathan Life without government is “nasty, brutish, and short”And “A war of every man against every other man”Said people need a strong ruler to control them
15Sponsored voyages of Columbus Absolute RulerWhereMajor ContributionResults of ContributionFerdinand and IsabellaSponsored voyages of ColumbusBrought land & wealth to Spain, made them powerfulSpain
16Fought off the Ottoman Empire Absolute RulerWhereMajor ContributionResults of ContributionCharles VFought off the Ottoman EmpireKept Europe safe from the Ottomans (Muslims)Spain
17Spain lost its power and became weaker Absolute RulerWhereMajor ContributionResults of ContributionPhilip IISpent Spain’s wealth defending the Catholic ChurchSpain lost its power and became weakerSpain
18Organized the Empire of India Made India a power in Southern Asia Absolute RulerWhereMajor ContributionResults of ContributionAkbar the GreatOrganized the Empire of IndiaMade India a power in Southern AsiaIndia
19High taxes made poor people even poorer and angry Absolute RulerWhereMajor ContributionResults of ContributionLouis XIVBuilt the Palace of Versailles and fought many warsHigh taxes made poor people even poorer and angryFrance
20Introduced Western culture to Russia Absolute RulerWhereMajor ContributionResults of ContributionPeter the GreatIntroduced Western culture to RussiaModernized the culture of Russia (westernization)Russia
29Result:The monarchy was replaced by a “commonwealth” (a republic) Led by Cromwellvs.
30Step 3: The “Restoration” What Happened: Cromwell became power hungry so…
31The “Merrie Monarch” Result: Parliament invited Charles II to return as King.The “Merrie Monarch”
32Step 4: The Glorious Revolution What happened:Charles II’s son James was too absolute
33were asked by Parliament to take the throne What happened:William and Mary of Orangewere asked by Parliament to take the throne
34Glorious Revolution of 1688 Called “Glorious” because there was hardly any bloodshedJames II abdicated the throne (fled)
35And two rulers were invited to take over, but first… Result: William and Mary agreed to sign the English Bill of Rights and share power with the Parliament
36Today England has a “Limited Constitutional Monarchy” Parliament has the real power (not the king/queen)
37Essential QuestionHow did the rule of absolute monarchs in the 16th and 17th centuries reflect the ideas expressed in Machiavelli’s book The Prince and in the writings of Thomas Hobbes?IN OTHER WORDS: What do absolute rulers and authors Machiavelli & Thomas Hobbes have in common?