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The Reformation Crisis in Western Europe 1517-1598.

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Presentation on theme: "The Reformation Crisis in Western Europe 1517-1598."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Reformation Crisis in Western Europe 1517-1598

2 Background to the Reformation Ongoing Abuses within the Church – The “training” of average priests – The privileges of church leaders Pluralism/Absenteeism Nepotism General worldliness (preoccupied with politics and power)

3 The Reformation Background Luther – Early Life; becomes an Augustinian friar – 95 Theses to the Diet of Worms – What Allowed him to continue? Spread and diversity of reform ideas Catholic responses

4 Pope Leo X (r. 1513-1521) Leo X, Giovanni de Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruler of Florence Clement VII (on left) was Leo’s nephew, and was elected pope 1523

5 Background to the Reformation Ongoing abuses within the Church – The “training” of average priests – The privileges of church leaders Pluralism Nepotism General worldliness Literacy and print culture Political changes

6 Political Developments, 1450-1550 A Fourth Great Power: Spanish kingdoms united – Marriage of Ferdinand, king of Aragon, and Isabella, queen of Castile – Spanish Inquisition established 1478 – Impact of Exploration 1492 – Marriage Alliances English Dynastic Change: Tudor Dynasty Founded (1485) – Henry VII (r.1485-1509) – Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547) France: Valois Dynasty Under Francis I Charles V Becomes Holy Roman Emperor (1519)

7 Europe in the Reign of Charles V

8 The Trials of Charles V Disunited Empire – More than 300 German States Alone – His focus was divided between his Spanish Holdings and his Holy Roman Holdings Ongoing rivalry with the French over control of Italy Attacks from the Turks

9 Martin Luther (1483-1546) Educated and trained as a Catholic theologian His “95 Theses” and the challenge on indulgences Development of his thinking leads to excommunication (1520)

10 Luther’s Thinking Develops Three Significant Pamphlets (1520) – Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation – The Babylonian Captivity of the Church – Freedom of a Christian Two Major Doctrinal Innovations – Sola Fide (By Faith Alone) – Sola Scriptura (Scripture Only)

11 The Role of Print Culture in Spreading Luther’s Thought

12 Luther at the Diet of Worms (1521): “I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand, I cannot do otherwise.”

13 Luther Protected by Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony German princes harbor Luther as challenge to papal role in politics Charles V unable to respond initially due to other concerns Luther translates Bible into German

14 The Peasants’ Revolt (1525-26) Challenge to authority of church and state. Eventually denounced by Luther

15 Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) Based in Zurich Scripture as the only authority Non-sacramental liturgy(They’re Symbols) Marburg Colloquy (1529) dispute with Luther Dies in Battle during Swiss civil war

16 Anabaptists: Radical Reformers “Re-baptizers”: Bible a blueprint for society Conrad Grebel & the Swiss Brethren -- Schleitheim Confession (1527) Thomas Muentzer claims Luther sold out Muenster Experiment in 1534-35 Menno Simons advocates pacifism (Mennonites)

17 Jean Calvin (1509-1564) Law student turned theologian who converts in 1534 and flees to Geneva Brief time in Strasbourg with Martin Bucer Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536): Predestination Return to Geneva, the center of Reform in late-16 th century

18 The Church Strike Back Catholic reformers gain the upper hand in the church An attempt to counter the success of the Reformation in its theological aspects Not by compromise or accommodation but distinctness and reaffirmation of traditional beliefs

19 The Catholic Reformation Charles V tries negotiation, then force – Schmalkaldic League: Protestant princes come together to defend themselves Defeated in 1547 at Mühlberg – Peace of Augsburg (1555): Cuius regio, eius religio. “Reform in the bones”: New Foundations – Capuchins – Ursulines – Jesuits: The shock troops of Catholic reform: education and advisors to rulers

20 Pope Paul III Recognizes Ignatius of Loyola

21 Catholic Propaganda Against Luther

22 The Catholic Reformation (“Reform in the Head”) Initial response is to ignore – Fifth Lateran Council (1513-1517): “Men are to be changed by, not to change, religion.” Paul III (r. 1534-1549) – Interesting blend of old and new – Places reformers in the curia – “Advice of the Reform of the Church” (1537) – Sets up Roman Inquisition (The Holy Office in 1542) – Calls Council of Trent (1545-1563)

23 The Council of Trent (1545-1563) Reaffirmed Old Doctrines – Authority in tradition AND Scripture – Church seen as sole interpreter of Bible – Salvation through faith AND works – Affirmed distinction between laity and priesthood – Rejected predestination Improved training of priests and required bishops to spend time in their dioceses Encouraged missionary zeal Repressive measures as well: Inquisition and “The Index”

24 Sorting Through the Doctrinal Differences Sources of Salvation Attitude towards Sacraments Role of the Clergy Relations between Church and State

25 Henry VIII (r. 1509) Devout Catholic: “Fidei Defensor ” Marriage Troubles in 1520s based in part on succession concerns and on religious concerns

26 The Wives of Henry VIII: Six or Two?

27 The English Reformation Under Henry VIII His Key Advisors on Reform – Thomas Cromwell (Political: Controlled Parliament) – Thomas Cranmer (Religious: Archbishop of Canterbury) Administrative Change and Some Doctrinal Reform: Cromwell and Cranmer – Act in Restraint of Appeals (1532) – Act of Supremacy (1534) – Ten Articles (1536) & Six Articles (1539) – Upshot = Modest Reform Till Henry’s Death in 1547

28 Edward VI (r. 1547-1553) Boy King aided by uncles who were devout Protestants Cranmer and Continental Reformers also Important 1549 & 1552: Act of Uniformity and Book of Common Prayer

29 Mary I (r. 1553-1558) Daughter of Catherine of Aragon: devout Catholic Turns back the clock on reform & persecutes “Heretics” Marries Philip II of Spain, champion of Catholicism in Europe

30 Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) ModerateProtestant Act of Supremacy (1559); Modified Book of Common Prayer; and issued “39 Articles” (1563) Faced Protestant and Catholic threats Rivalry with Spain over English role on continent: Plots and “The Armada” (1588)

31 Religions in Europe @1560

32 Religious Wars in the 1500s Problems within France due to 3 Factors – Spread of Protestantism; – Dynastic uncertainties; and – Overmighty noble factions Problems in The Netherlands due to 3 Factors – Conflict with King Philip II of Spain; – Connections with other Protestant areas; and – Rise of local resistance

33 Huguenots in France: 2,000 Congregations (ca.1561)

34 Successors of Henry II (d. 1559)

35 Noble Factions in France Catholic Faction led by the Guise family Duke of Guise starts wars in 1562 by killing a Huguenot congregation at Vassy 1576 Henry of Guise est. Catholic League Protestant Faction led first by the Bourbon and Montmorency- Chatillon factions Key man by late 1580s is Henry of Navarre Navarre will help Henry III defeat the Catholic League (1589)

36 Massacres of Protestants: Vassy and St. Bartholomew’s Day

37 Navarre Becomes Henry IV (r. 1589-1610) Henry III assassinated in 1589, no heir Navarre Has two claims to Throne: descent and marriage to Henry III’s sister He converts: “Paris is worth a mass.” Edict of Nantes (1598): religious toleration for Huguenots Henry IV assassinated in 1610

38 The Dutch Revolt Philip II of Spain (r. 1556- 1598) attempts to exert control over The Netherlands Locals resist imposition of Tridentine Catholicism and Spanish-style administration Dutch towns among wealthiest in Europe with contacts in England and among the German states Spanish face increasingly unified resistance led by William of Orange and after defeat of the Armada in 1588 begin to pull back.

39 The Twelve Years’ Truce, 1609

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