Presentation on theme: "Nationalism, Sectionalism and the Rise of Mass Democracy From the Era of Good Feelings through the Age of Jackson 1815-1844 Chapters 12 and 13 American."— Presentation transcript:
Nationalism, Sectionalism and the Rise of Mass Democracy From the Era of Good Feelings through the Age of Jackson 1815-1844 Chapters 12 and 13 American Pageant
Andrew Jackson (“Old Hickory”) Popular war hero—“a man of the people.” The first western president Jacksonian Democracy: political power exercised by ordinary Americans The “politics of deference” (the politics of electing those better than us) ends
Democratic Trends: Voting Requirements are Lessened
Additional Signs of Democratization Party nominating committees were replaced by conventions increasing those involved in the process Spoils system: rotation of office by giving supporters jobs in the government Cemented party affiliations and loyalties Rise of Third Parties (spirited opposition) Popular campaigning made politics entertaining Much mud-slinging and “false advertising”
Jackson Controversies: The Indian Removal Act Five major Native American groups lived in the southeastern United States White Americans called them the “five civilized tribes” because many of them had adopted aspects of European and American culture. Many white Americans viewed them as inferior. Farmland was becoming scarce in the East, and white settlers coveted the Indians’ lands
Controversies: The Indian Removal Act Indian Removal Act (1830): called for the relocation of the five nations to an area west of the Mississippi River called “Indian Territory” (now Oklahoma) Even with a written constitution, the state of Georgia refused to recognize the Cherokee as a “nation” Worcester v. Georgia (1832): The Supreme Court ruled against Georgia, denying it the right to take Cherokee lands. The Cherokee had the right to self-government Georgia's extension of state law over them declared unconstitutional
“John Marshall has made his decision. Now let him enforce it!” – President Andrew Jackson Of the 18,000 Cherokee forced to leave their homes, about 4,500 died on the march, which became known as the Trail of Tears.
Jackson Controversies: The B.U.S. The Second B.U.S. was a national bank overseen by the federal government to regulate state banks. Established in 1816 and given a 20-year charter Opponents of the B.U.S. (including Jackson) thought that the Constitution did not give Congress the authority to create the bank. Opponents also recognized that state banks were more inclined to make loans to poorer farmers in the South and West—the very people who supported Jackson. They viewed the bank as an institution devoted to the interests of wealthy northern corporations.
After his re-election, Jackson ordered money taken out of the B.U.S. and deposited in select state banks (“pet banks”). In 1836 the Second Bank of the United States was reduced to just another state bank. “The Bank is trying to kill me but I will kill it!” Andrew Jackson in his feud with Nicholas Biddle Fears of financial disaster lead to another panic later
Jackson Controversies: The Nullification Crisis In 1828 Congress raised the “Tariff of Abominations” (so named by V.P. John C. Calhoun) on British manufactured goods. Welcomed by northern industrial states: it increased the price of British goods and encouraged Americans to buy American goods. Despised by southern agricultural states: forced southerners to buy northern goods instead of the less expensive British goods. Southern cotton growers, who exported most of their crop to Britain, opposed interference with international trade. Nullification, anyone?
When Congress passed another tariff in 1832, South Carolina declared the tariff law “null and void” They threatened to secede from the Union if the federal government tried to enforce the tariff Hayne (S.C.) and Webster (Mass.) debate Senator Robert Hayne (with Calhoun) argues Southern view of tariff, and states’ rights Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts defends Union Calhoun resigns from the vice-presidency
Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable. The Union, next to our liberty, most dear. Our Federal Union—it must be preserved. WEBSTER CALHOUNJACKSON
Meanwhile… Jackson asked Congress to pass a Force Bill explicitly authorizing the use of military force to enforce the tariff At the same time, Henry Clay worked out a compromise that tariffs would be reduced over a period of 10 years. Jackson signs both the Force Bill and Clay’s Compromise Tariff Bill at the same time
Can you guess what strategy the Whigs employed in this election? Did it work?
Martin van Buren Andrew Jackson’s hand- picked successor that got to deal with all of Jackson’s enemies The Whigs come of age Supporters of the American System Southern states’ righters Northern industrialists and merchants Active government programs and reforms A tough coalition to hold together
The Van Buren Presidency 1836: Martin Van Buren wins w/ Jackson’s support Pet banks print bank notes in excess of gold, silver they have Government demands specie (gold, silver) to pay for public lands (this was known as the specie circular) Rush to exchange paper money for specie, banks stop taking paper money Panic of 1837 bank closings, collapse of credit system people lose savings, businesses bankrupted more than a third of population out of work
Andrew Jackson in 1844 (one year before his death)