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In courtroom speech Patrick Henry declares, "Give me liberty, or give me death." NEXT American colonists developed common values and established a foundation.

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Presentation on theme: "In courtroom speech Patrick Henry declares, "Give me liberty, or give me death." NEXT American colonists developed common values and established a foundation."— Presentation transcript:

1 In courtroom speech Patrick Henry declares, "Give me liberty, or give me death." NEXT American colonists developed common values and established a foundation for representative government. Britain defeated France in the French and Indian War. Beginnings of an American Identity, 1689–1763

2 NEXT SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 Early American Culture Roots of Representation The French and Indian War Beginnings of an American Identity, 1689–1763

3 NEXT Section 1 Early American Culture The British colonies were shaped by prosperity, literacy, and new movements in religion and thought.

4 Land, Rights, and Wealth NEXT Cheap farmland, many resources give colonists chance to prosper 1 SECTION Property owners, landowners, city dwellers who pay fee could vote Early American Culture American colonies have three classes: -high rank—large landowners -middle rank—small farmers -low rank—servants, slaves, hired workers Colonial women hold the same rank as their husbands or fathers Chart

5 Women and the Economy NEXT 1 SECTION Enslaved African women help raise cash crops Women in towns do housework, some run inns, businesses Also work in fields, barter with neighbors for goods and services Most white women are farm wives: do housework, tend gardens, animals Women could not own property without husband’s permission Women could not vote, preach, or hold office Image

6 Young People at Work NEXT 1 SECTION Colonial families often large; more children means more workers Work free 4—7 years; receive necessities, training; then work for wages At age 11, boys often become apprentices— learn trade from craftsmen At age 6, boys are “breeched,” help father at work At age 13 or 14, often sent to households to learn specialized skills Girls rarely apprenticed, learn household skills from mother Image

7 Colonial Schooling NEXT 1 SECTION Most children are taught to read to understand Bible Textbooks emphasize religion Poor children learn reading from mother or “dame schools” Only children from rich families learn writing, arithmetic Educated African Americans rare; illegal to teach enslaved to read Colonial America has high literacy rate

8 Newspapers and Books NEXT 1 SECTION Many newspapers appear in colonial America Captivity narratives popular, about colonists captured by Native Americans Almanacs, regional histories, personal stories are popular Most books come from England; gradually colonists publish own books

9 The Great Awakening 1 SECTION Many colonists lose religious passion; religion seems dry, distant Jonathan Edwards is a popular preacher involved with Great Awakening In 1730s, 1740s, the Great Awakening religious movement is influential: -emphasizes inner religious emotion -deemphasizes outward religious behavior Continued... NEXT

10 1 SECTION Great Awakening encourages equality, right to challenge authority Great Awakening changes colonial culture: -congregations argue about religious practices, split apart -many join other Protestant groups -some groups welcome women -some groups welcome African Americans, Native Americans Inspires George Whitefield; sermons raise money for home for orphans continued The Great Awakening Image

11 The Enlightenment 1 SECTION The Enlightenment emphasizes knowledge through reason, science Enlightenment begins in Europe; scientists discover natural laws Benjamin Franklin is famous American Enlightenment figure Continued... NEXT

12 1 SECTION English philosopher John Locke says people have natural rights: -rights to life, liberty, property -natural rights protected by government -if government fails, people have right to change it Ideas about natural rights, government influence Europe, colonies continued The Enlightenment

13 NEXT Section 2 Roots of Representation Colonists expected their government to preserve their basic rights as English subjects.

14 The Rights of Englishmen NEXT 2 SECTION In 1215, King John is forced to accept Magna Carta (Great Charter) Over time, rights of Magna Carta are granted to all English people Magna Carta grants rights to English noblemen and freemen: -cannot have property seized by king or his officials -in most cases, cannot be taxed unless council agrees -cannot be put on trial without witnesses -can be punished only by jury of peers Roots of Representation Image

15 Parliament and Colonial Government 2 SECTION Parliament—England’s chief lawmaking body has two houses: -members of House of Commons are elected by the people -members of House of Lords are nonelected English colonists form representative assemblies like House of Commons Continued... NEXT

16 2 SECTION English colonists govern themselves in some ways Passes laws that affect colonies Parliament has no colonial representatives Colonists dislike these laws, clash with king- appointed royal governor England has authority over colonial governments continued Parliament and Colonial Government

17 A Royal Governor’s Rule NEXT 2 SECTION James II becomes king (1685), imposes strict rule on colonies Andros ends representative assemblies; colonists refuse to pay taxes Appoints royal governor Edmund Andros to rule dominion Combines Massachusetts and Northern colonies into one dominion Image

18 England’s Glorious Revolution 2 SECTION English Parliament overthrows King James, appoints William and Mary Change in leadership is called England’s Glorious Revolution (1688) Continued... NEXT

19 2 SECTION William and Mary uphold the English Bill of Rights (1689): -monarch cannot cancel laws, -cannot impose taxes unless Parliament agrees -free elections, frequent meetings of Parliament -excessive fines and cruel punishment forbidden -people can complain to monarch without being arrested American colonists claim these rights Establishes government based on law, not on desires of ruler continued England’s Glorious Revolution

20 Shared Power in the Colonies 2 SECTION After Glorious Revolution, Massachusetts regains self-government Governor, his council, colonial assembly share power Still have king-appointed royal governor Chart Continued... NEXT

21 2 SECTION Royal governor can strike down laws England has little involvement in colonial affairs—salutary neglect If governor blocks law, assembly might refuse to pay him Colonial assembly responsible for governor’s salary continued Shared Power in the Colonies Governors rarely enforce certain laws; colonists feel independent

22 NEXT 2 SECTION John Peter Zenger—publisher of New-York Weekly Journal Stands trial; jury says he has right to speak truth At the time, illegal to criticize government in print In 1735, he prints criticism of New York’s governor Is released; colonists move toward freedom of press The Zenger Trial Image

23 NEXT Britain’s victory in the French and Indian War forced France to give up its North American colonies. Section 3 The French and Indian War

24 France Claims Western Lands NEXT French claim territory from Appalachian range to Rocky Mountains (1682) 3 SECTION Main French settlements along the St. Lawrence River in Canada The French and Indian War Colony of New France’s population about 80,000 (1760) British colonies’ population more than a million settlers (1760) Many Europeans in New France work as fur traders Image

25 Native American Alliances NEXT 3 SECTION English compete with French for furs Series of wars between French, English, and Native American allies Huron, Algonquin peoples allies of French; Iroquois allies of English Native American groups compete to supply furs to Europeans Final war is the French and Indian War (1754—1763)

26 Conflict in the Ohio River Valley 3 SECTION British fur traders move into Ohio River Valley (1750s) French refuse to leave, capture English fort, rename it Fort Duquesne French build forts to protect region; Virginia colony upset, claim region French destroy village and British trading post to keep British out NEXT

27 War Begins and Spreads NEXT 3 SECTION George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to French troops (1754) Iroquois refuse to ally themselves with British Seven Years’ War is worldwide struggle for empire between Britain, France French and Indian War part of larger Seven Years’ War Benjamin Franklin’s plan to unite colonies— Albany Plan of Union Colonial legislatures defeat this plan

28 Braddock’s Defeat NEXT 3 SECTION British send General Edward Braddock, two regiments to Virginia Braddock killed; second-in-command Washington miraculously survives Braddock and his troops defeated by French and Indian troops (1755) Interactive

29 The British Take Quebec NEXT 3 SECTION By 1759, British control six French forts British commander James Wolfe, French commander Montcalm killed Finally, British troops sneak up cliff path, attack fort in morning For two months British unable to capture the fort at Quebec British defeat French at Battle of Quebec; turning point of war Image

30 The Treaty of Paris NEXT 3 SECTION Britain, France battle in other parts of world three more years Treaty of Paris: -Britain claims all of North America east of the Mississippi -France gives New Orleans and Louisiana territory to Spain -Britain gives Cuba, Philippines to Spain for Florida -ends French power in North America Seven Years’ War ends in 1763; British win

31 Pontiac’s Rebellion NEXT 3 SECTION British settlers move onto Native American lands This starts deadly outbreak; Native Americans retreat British give Delaware war leaders smallpox- infected blankets Native Americans attack settlers, destroy forts—Pontiac’s Rebellion British issue Proclamation of 1763: -forbids colonists to settle west of Appalachians -angers colonists who thought they had won right to settle Map

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