Early Bantu Migrations ● Around 1,000 BCE, people started to move out of their homeland in West Central Africa. ● Most of the people in Sub-Saharan Africa are descendents of the Bantus. ● The Bantus passed down history orally through speakers called griots. ● Over time, the descendants settled down and developed their own distinct languages and cultures. ● The people often practiced agriculture and developed stone tools. ● In many early civilizations the people followed a patrilineal society (family traced back to father’s side) but some were matrilineal (family traced back to mother’s side) ● The African people skipped the bronze age completely as they evolved from the stone age right to the iron age in 400 BCE.
Prehistory Evolution of humans Homo Habilis- Stone users Homo erectus- first peoples to use fire and stand up-right Australopithecus Cro Magnon Homo sapiens- Modern day humans Agricultural Revolution/Neolithic Revolution: 10,000BCE-8,000BCE
Aksum (100-940) ● formed in modern day Ethiopia around the year 100 ● traded luxury goods such as glass crystal, brass, and copper to the Roman Empire for silver, gold, olive oil, and wine ● As a result, by 270 Aksum became prosperous and used gold as currency, which only a few other nations did as well ● King Azana I ● ruled from 320-350 ● in 327, he made Christianity official religion of Aksum ● to preserve religion, Azana banned the building of mosques for Muslim ● Aksum began to decline when Islam spread to neighboring states. ● This cut off trade for Aksum, eventually leading to the fall of empire.
Political Systems 600-1450 African Kingdoms ●Traditional Kingdoms: mostly found in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa (based on traditional religious beliefs) ●Islamic Kingdoms: Ghana, Mali, Swahili city-states ●Christian Kingdoms: Aksum
Ghana Empire (800-1200) ● Formed by several clans of the Soninke people that were ruled by a divine ruler called Dinga Cisse ● Known as the “Gold Coast” because there was a lot of gold found in mines which was traded ● As a result of trading gold, Ghana was a rich and powerful empire. ● trade spread Islam to Ghana ● the king used book-keeping and literary skills of Muslim scholars to help govern empire ● Although Islam spread to Ghana, Islam wasn’t the official religion. ● Many people including the king continued to believe in traditional beliefs, which led to the invasion by Almoravid Berbers from North Africa. ● Ghana declined due to economic decline, drought, and being taken over by Almoravid Berbers. ● Sumanguru, the leader of the Sosso Empire in West Africa, invaded and took over Ghana. ● Sundiata Keita later took over Ghana as part of the Mali Empire.
Mali Empire (1230-1600) ● In 1235, Mali was created after Sundiata Keita defeated the king, Sumanguru. ● He took over Timbuktu from the Tuareg, a group of Berbers, and turned into an important city of trade and knowledge. ● Sundiata made Islam the official religion and many mosques were built in Timbuktu. ● Like Ghana, Mali grew rich from gold. ● Muslim scribes had a huge role in controlling the government and administration of Mali. ● Mali traded gold and agricultural products to North Africa for salt. ● Mansa Musa (1312-1337) ● Mansa Musa was one of the richest kings of the world at the time. He was promoted Islam and was a devoted Muslim. ● He centralized Mali and expanded trade. ● He went on a pilgrimage to Mecca and brought a lot of gold to the Middle East, decreasing the price of gold in the region by a lot. ● Mali fell due incompetent rulers and attacked by Tuareg Berbers. ● Eventually, the empire collapsed and by 1500, the Songhai Empire took over Mali.
Songhai Empire (15th - 16th C.E.) ● Emerged after rebellion against Mali paired with rebellion of Fulani people led to the fall of the Mali Empire ● Largest and last of the three pre-colonial empires of West Africa ● ruled by Sonni family from 13th century to 15th century ● Sonni Ali- reorganised army, conquered cities of Timbuktu and Jenne, army became largest military defense force in western Sudan which increased Songhai’s political and economic power. ● Muslim’s in Timbuktu thought Sonni Ali was tyrannical, Sonni’s were overthrown by the Muslim Askiya dynasty ● New Monarch ruled with absolute power, nobles owned large estates, work done by servile labor ● Ivory and rubber trade increased, slave trade became very important for economy ● Askia Mohammed used slaves as soldiers and advisors because he felt they could be trusted to not go against their masters, slaves were also used to do most crafts thus increasing their importance in the empire. ● Conquered by Moroccans in 1591.
Interregional trade 600- 1450 ● Prior to time period, not much trade between North and South Africa due to harsh Sahara conditions. The camel allowed for passage through. ● Islam enters Africa along trade routes. However, the Berbers of the North had slightly different Islamic views than the Abbasids. This resulted in an east-west trade conflict. ● Due to this conflict, there was increased effort to push South through the Sahara.
Map of Early Trade ● Berbers in North ● Kola nuts and palm oil near equator (stayed north of the sahel) ● Gold in south
Effects of Trans-Saharan Trade Ghana Develops ● served as a middleman ● Gold in south traded pound for pound with salt from north ● Ghana helped make sure that there was fair trade, and that no one was cheated (hard to communicate, different languages) ● grew rich through this process
More Trade ● Eastern africa heard of Ghana’s wealth, and traders came with silk, spices, and luxury goods to trade. ● Mali arose in the same location. ● Generally same trade as Ghana. ● Mansa Musa went on pilgrimage to Mecca, giving away gold as he travelled ● This caused a huge drop in the value of gold ● Mansa Musa created mosques on the way, furthering the spread of Islam
Columbian Exchange(15th-18th C) ● “the transfer of peoples, animals, plants and diseases between the New and the Old Worlds” ●direct result of the discovery of the Americas by Columbus in 1492 ●From Africa: rice, bananas, coconuts, breadfruit, and most importantly sugar cane were brought to the Americas ○Similar to the other continents, Africa was exposed to important crops such as maize (corn), potatoes, squash, etc. ●Disease from the Old World were fatal to those in the New World ○This led to slaves being one of the most important products traded in this time period
Atlantic Slave Trade(16th-19th C) ●Atlantic slave trade was prominent and grew large in this time era ○ This was a trade network spanning primarily Europe, Africa, and the Americas ●Colonies in the new world needed a source of labor to tend to their massive plantations ○ Initial system of encomienda he local natives had low resistance to diseases ●Atlantic slave trade focused on men who were capable of doing labor ○ Caused shift in gender balance which gave women more responsibilities and promoted polygamy ●Expanding African states attacked neighboring Africans; prisoners of war were usually sold to Europeans as slaves ○ African elites grew wealthy as they received textiles, weapons, and hardware in return ■ Imported products stimulated local production of clothing and tools ●African slaves were transported in the Middle Passage: trans- Atlantic journey to America ○ The conditions on the ships were hot, filthy, and crowded (caused 50% mortality rates) ○ Slavers were cruel but attempted to keep slaves alive for maximum profit
Contact with Islam Trade with the Islamic World ●Africa began to trade with the expanding Islamic world ●Islamic traders who came from North Africa brought their religion with them ○ Islam gained many converts in Sub-Saharan Africa ○ European cultural influence and Christianity was limited in this area ●Islamic beliefs, practices, culture, and law were all influential to Sub-Saharan African trading cities ●Islam help facilitate the rise of empires including the Mali and Songhai ●Islamic women had rights, but had to wear veils in the public ●Slave trade with the Arab world existed (Arab Slave Trade), but occurred on a much smaller scale than in the Atlantic Slave Trade ○ However, this source of trade lasted much longer ○ Slavery in the Arab World lasted from 650-1900 and 10-18 million people were enslaved ○ Slaves were treated differently in the Arab world (men were castrated and women were raped)
Changes and Continuities Relationship with Europe ●Early Europeans were more interested in trade with Africa than colonization ●Even with the Atlantic slave trade, Europeans did not have increased power in Africa ●European trading posts along the Gold and Slave Coasts had absurd rents and fees and were closely monitored by local African rulers ●All of Africa only contained 2 European beachheads ○ Portuguese Angola and Dutch Cape Colony Culture ●Increased contact with Europeans did not change culture ●African governments forced Europeans to observe African trading customs ●Even with the influx of European goods being exchanged for slaves, artists continued to produce traditional African sculptures, wood carvings, metalwork, paintings, basketry, etc. ●Women also retained their social position ○ Women in Islamic societies were given less rights and made to wear veils ○ The few matriarchal societies still had women who held high positions of power
Scramble for Africa ● In 1879, Henry Stanley persuaded King Leopold II of Belgium to invest in opening up trade with the Congo in the southern end of the Congo River. ● Bismarck called the Berlin Conference in 1884/5 to speak to the leaders of European nations about what was happening in Africa with the colonization of the Congo by Belgium and the British forces entering Egypt. His goal with the conference was to settle agreements between the nations about who will receive what portion of Africa. ● The leaders divided up Africa amongst themselves without any discretion for the native tribes in the areas. Often times, enemy tribes would be put together in a nation under the same flag while friendly tribes were separated. This led to conflicts between tribes. ● Europeans used to only have settlements, colonies, and trade around the coasts, but thanks to new technologies such as steam ships and medicines, they were able to move further inland. ● Africa was also a source for raw materials to the industrializing nations such as the rubber that was taken from the Congo by the Belgians who had the natives harvest rubber and they treated them brutally. ● In addition, Africa was a source of new marketplaces for Europeans to sell their cheaply made products in. ● Some nations remained economically imperialized even after receiving political independence ex. Egypt and South Africa
Examples of Raw Materials ● 1807- Slave trade abolition (US, Britain) ● British navy enforces slave trade laws on West Coast. ● after 1825: o Gold in Ghana (British) o Ivory and Slaves in Zanzibar, Tanzania (British)- Zanzibar was a major location where many slaves were bought and sold upto 1873. o palm oil for soap, candles in West Africa o Two million slaves were exported illegally from East Africa and slaves were transported around Africa. ● Rubber in Congo (Belgians) ● gold, diamonds, copper, coal, iron ore in South Africa ● after 1900: o cocoa(Ghana), palm oil(Nigeria), coffee(East Africa)
Boers (Afrikaners) ● The Boers were Dutch farmers who settled in South Africa in 1652 and established themselves as farmers and traders. ● They traded locally with different Bantu speaking groups. ● The British also established settlements there (Cape Town) in the early 1800’s. ● The Boers moved north in the 1830’s to escape the British. This was called the Great Trek and the people moved into the areas occupied by Zulus and other African groups. Battles occurred between the Boers and the Zulus. ● The was a rush of European arrivals to South Africa in the 1860’s and 1880’s with the discovery of gold and diamonds in large quantities. ● Boers took up arms in order to prevent the outsiders from taking control of the diamond and gold trade in the area and with the world. ● The British and Boers clashed on policies of land and slaves. ● The Boer War began between the two powers in 1899. ● Boers were often put into camps by the British as prisoners of war, and they were often mistreated. Their villages were often burned and farms were destroyed. ● In 1910, the British won the war and the Boers republics were put in a sub governing union in South Africa that was under British control. South Africa was considered an independent nation even though it was actually controlled by the British for a long time to come. (It was a British Dominion nation like Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.)
Zulu Kingdom (1816-1897) ● In 1816, a Zulu chief named Shaka created a large centralized state in Greater Mozambique. ● The Zulus had traded in slavery. ● Shaka was considered a good leader as he led the kingdom to prosperity, but his successors were unable to keep the kingdom together due to outside pressure from the more elite British army. ● The British began to pressure the Zulu Kingdom. ● In 1897, the king refused to accept British rule which caused the British to invade the Zulu nation. ● It became known as the British Colony of Natal in 1897. ● In 1910, it became part of the Union of South Africa.
National identities (1900-2000) ● Ethiopia was an independent nation for a long time until they were invaded by the Italians in 1936. Ethiopia was occupied until 1941 when they were able to drive away the Italian forces with sticks and regained independence in 1941. Ethiopia though is considered to never have been colonized along with Liberia. ● Nationalism began occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa as nations gained independence from European powers beginning in 1951 with Ghana gaining independence from Britain. ● After decolonization, the nations retained the borders that were set by the Europeans. ● Some nations entered turmoil as the feuding tribes in the nations have waited for the Europeans to leave so they can begin fighting again. ● This violence occurred in Rwanda between the Tutsis and the Hutus and it escalated into a mass genocide as the Tutsis killed about a million Hutus. There was also violence in Nigeria between Christians and Muslims. Congo quickly deteriorated into chaos after gaining independence. Numerous other conflicts in Africa occurred often due to religious violence or tribal violence. ● Some countries began to make unions between each other and alliances which are all part of the African Union (Morocco is not in the AU but it is in other unions and Egpyt and CAF are currently suspended from the AU). The agreements were often for political or economic gains.
We have focused on a few countries in Africa as they gain independence from their European controllers. This table shows these countries and the basic information about them. CountryLeaderMethod of Achieving Independence Resulting GovernmentFormer European Power GhanaKwame Nkrumah Protests and strikes led by Nkrumah. and the support of the people 1957-1966 Parliamentary 1966-Military, Socialism Constant shift between civilian and military control Britain Democratic Republic of Congo Patrice Lumumba Lumumba: first PM Chaos erupts and a military (Mobutu) regime soon takes over with constant fighting Belgium KenyaJomo Kenyatta Violence,Mau Mau Strikes and protests led by Kenyatta 1963-1978: Kenyatta President 1978-2002: Daniel arap Moi, one party leader Britain Algeria Ahmed Ben Bella, leader of Algerian National Liberation Front The FLN fought the French for independence as France didn’t want to give up Algeria as a colony Ahmed president till 1965, wanted socialism Continuous turmoil between military and Islamist forces France
Apartheid and Its Opposition ●In 1948, after the Nationalist Party takes power in South Africa, they pass a law to separate the races. The black people were placed under the whites. ●The Nationalist Party was composed of mainly Afrikaners who were South African people from Dutch descent. (The Dutch were the original white colonizers of SA) ●The apartheid system limited contact between the whites and blacks. The black people had to carry around a special I.D. card and they weren’t allowed in white neighborhoods. These neighborhoods had the best lands. Also, the hospitals, schools, and other public places were segregated against black people. ●Stephen Biko and Nelson Mandela were two well educated blacks who fought for the black people to end the apartheid and give the people freedom. ●Stephen Biko was arrested for protesting and was beaten to death by police in 1976. ●The ANC was banned for a period of time before South Africa declared a state of emergency due to all the protesting and strikes against the apartheid. ●Desmond Tutu was a bishop who had persuaded the foreign investors to stop the flow of money into South Africa until black were treated equal ●In 1990, after F.W. de Clerk became the president (white) he legalized the ANC, ended apartheid, and freed Nelson Mandela from prison. ●Nelson Mandela became president in April 1994 and in 1996 a constitution was written
Economies Begin to grow in Africa The governments of numerous African nations began to turn away from militaristic regime and most often their economies developed. Five African nations are in the top ten countries with the fastest growing economy and eleven in the top 20. These countries have nationalized their resources. This means that they control their own economy and the businesses without major foreign control of their resources. * A country that is doing well economically but still have political issues and government isn’t stable ^ The rank of the country in the GDP in Africa by size, ex. largest economy in Africa is Nigeria’s and South Africa has the second largest economy CountryRank in World(^)Main Export(s)CountryRank in World(^)Main Export Sierra Leone4(43)DiamondsMozambique6(24)Aluminum Ghana7(9)Oil, Gold, CocoaAngola*9(5)Oil Ethiopia10(12)CoffeeDR of Congo*11(21)Gold, Copper, Diamonds Rwanda12(33)Communication Tech Gambia13(49)Tourism Zambia17(17)CopperTanzania18(15)Gold, Iron, Diamonds Uganda20(19)Oil, MineralsNigeria21 (1)Oil
2000- Present ● HIV and AIDS epidemic spreads through Africa. ● In 2007, Somalia was added to US Bombing list. Somalia also had been the home of pirates who attacked ships in 2008-9. ● Zimbabwe undergoes hyperinflation during economic crisis, Zim Dollar is now banned. ● The Congo is still emerged in Civil War. ● Sudan fell into Civil War and South Sudan gains independence from Sudan but war continues. Also there is an ethnic cleansing in South Sudan killing hundreds. ● Joseph Kony forms the LRA army in Uganda mostly consisting of abducted children. ● The Central African Republic falls into chaos with thousands being killed and displaced. ● Sept, 21, 2013 there is a shooting in Kenya mall. ● South Africa held the Fifa World Cup in 2010 being the first African nation to do so. In 2013, Nelson Mandela, a much respected leader in South Africa dies. ● Nigeria has previously fallen into a state of chaos and Boko Haram kidnaped over 200 girls in Nigeria in 2014. As of May though, Nigeria became the largest economic power in Africa. ● African literacy rates rank from #1 Zimbabwe with 90% literacy rate to Burkino Faso’s 20%. ● Many parts of Africa continue to modernize and have new cities growing, some cities are even turning into metropolitans rivaling those in Europe and America such as Lagos, Nigeria; Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Pretoria, South Africa; Mogadishu, Somalia; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Nairobi, Kenya; Accra, Ghana; and Dakar, Senegal.
Changes and Continuities Change: The nations began to gain independence from the European powers and then begin to nationalize their economic resources to strengthen the economy. The economies continue to grow as some of the nations with fastest growing economy are in Africa. Change: The governments changed from an administrative government taking orders from European parliament to military regimes full of turmoil or a dictatorship. It was often hard to create a stable government that the people can agree on because of the disputing peoples in the country. Continuity: The African people put continuous pressure on the European power who had control of the nation whether nationally or economically. The apartheid were rules made by the white superiors who the black majority kept pressuring for the laws to be voided.