Presentation on theme: "Early Colonial Exploration and Expansion AFRICA. Pre-Colonial Africa."— Presentation transcript:
Early Colonial Exploration and Expansion AFRICA
Reasons for European Expansion 1. Curiosity 2. Search for new trade routes 3. Desire for natural resources and wealth 4. Pride
Portugal Why were the Portuguese the first Europeans to travel to Africa? –Prince Henry the Navigator (west coast) –Bartolomeu Dias (Cape of Good Hope) –Vasco Da Gama (India)
Exploring Africa 1. The Gold Coast 2. Western Africa 3. East Africa 4. Mozambique
The Early Slave Trade 1. Islamic Empire controlled the slave trade. 2. Intra-African Trade 3. Establishment of Trade Posts (later for slave trade) – 40 along the West Coast 4. European expansion to the New World leads to increased demands for slaves.
Slave Trade YearsNumber of Slaves% of overall trade , – , – 17001,348, – 18006,090, – 19003,466, ____________________________________________ Total11,233,
Where Did the Slaves Go?
The Decline of Portuguese Influence Few permanent settlements Racial Assimilation Annexation by Spain Political Instability Colonial Wars (Mozambique and Angola) International Competition
Colonial Africa The Scramble for Africa (1880 – 1900) –Britain –Italy –France –Germany –Spain –Belgium –Netherlands
THE BRITISH COME TO AFRICA British ship brings back gold from Guinea 1650s – British begin building forts on the West Coast of Africa, including the fort at Cape Coast 1700s – 1800s – British become heavily involved in the slave trade 1807 – Britain abolishes the slave trade 1817 – Britain begins to take control of people living on the coast with the consent of the Ashanti state.
THE FRENCH COME TO AFRICA 1624 – France est. trading posts in Senegal 1774 – Conflict with Britain destroys French colonialism 1830 – France invades Algeria
BERLIN CONFERENCE 1884 – Portugal requests Otto von Bismark solve the “Africa Problem” 14 countries invited –Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from ), Turkey, and the United States of America. –Germany France, G.B. and Portugal are the major players
Carving Up Africa 80% of the continent was self-governed Africa is carved into 50 countries and superimposed over the 1000 indigenous cultures.
Who Got What? Great Britain – Egypt, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya (British East Africa), South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana (Rhodesia), Nigeria and Ghana (Gold Coast) France – Mauritania to Chad (French West Africa), and Gabon and the Republic of Congo (French Equatorial Africa) Belgium – Democratic Republic of the Congo (Belgian Congo) Portugal – Mozambique, Guinea and Angola Italy – Somalia (Italian Somaliland) and Eritrea. Germany – Namibia (German Southwest Africa) and Tanzania (German East Africa) Spain – Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni)