Presentation on theme: "Berlin Conference: The Scramble for Africa. IN YOUR JOURNAL: 1)Which country are you? 2)Which parts of Africa so you want? 3)Use your Atlas to research."— Presentation transcript:
Berlin Conference: The Scramble for Africa
IN YOUR JOURNAL: 1)Which country are you? 2)Which parts of Africa so you want? 3)Use your Atlas to research the CLIMATE in your area and the RESOURCES in your area. 4)Guess why your country wants that land based on your answer to #3. 5)What kinds of problems might you encounter trying to get that land? Why?
BEFORE: 6) Which African groups are in the land that you want? 7) How do you think you will interact with them after the Conference?
Who got what… Great Britain desired a Cape-to-Cairo collection of colonies and almost succeeded though their control of Egypt, Sudan (Anglo- Egyptian Sudan), Uganda, Kenya (British East Africa), South Africa, and Zambia, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), and Botswana. The British also controlled Nigeria and Ghana (Gold Coast). France took much of western Africa, from Mauritania to Chad (French West Africa) and Gabon and the Republic of Congo (French Equatorial Africa). Belgium and King Leopold II controlled the Democratic Republic of Congo (Belgian Congo). Portugal took Mozambique in the east and Angola in the west. Italy's holdings were Somalia (Italian Somaliland) and a portion of Ethiopia. Germany took Namibia (German Southwest Africa) and Tanzania (German East Africa). Spain claimed the smallest territory - Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni).
The Outcome… The European colonial powers shared one objective in their African colonies; exploitation The British established a system of indirect rule over much of their domain, leaving indigenous power structure in place and making local rulers representatives of the British Crown. This was unthinkable in the Portuguese colonies, where harsh, direct control was the rule. The French sought to create culturally assimilated elites what would represent French ideals in the colonies. In the Belgian Congo, however, King Leopold II, who had financed the expeditions that staked Belgium's claim in Berlin, embarked on a campaign of ruthless exploitation. His enforcers mobilized almost the entire Congolese populations to gather rubber, kill elephants for their ivory, and build public works to improve export routes. For failing to meet production quotes, entire communities were massacred. Killing and maiming became routine in a colony in which horror was the only common denominator. After the impact of the slave trade, King Leopold's reign of terror was Africa's most severe demographic disaster. By the time it ended, after a growing outcry around the world, as many as 10 million Congolese had been murdered. In 1908 the Belgium government administrators, and the Roman Catholic Church each pursued their sometimes competing interest. But no one thought to change the name of the colonial capital: it was Leopoldville until the Belgian Congo achieved independence in 1960.
“White Man’s Burden” by Kipling 1) What is the “White Man’s Burden?” 2) Whose point of view is this told from? 3) Who are the people being described as “half- devil” and “half-child”? Why are they described this way? 4) How does the poem justify the “burden”? (Be specfic! Use a quote! Explain!) 5) Why did Kipling have this opinion? (Hint: look at his biography!) 6) How do you feel about this poem? Do you agree or disagree? Why or why not?
In your journal… Write a letter to someone with your opposite point of view. Include your thoughts on the Berlin Conference and try to get the other person to see your perspective. BE DESCRIPTIVE! Characters to choose from: Kipling, African royalty, African tribal member, European royalty, European worker/citizen