2HISTORY-Africa has been the target of colonial expansion from its earliest days. -Numerous countries from numerous parts of the world have tried to divide up parts of Africa throughout history.
3HISTORY647- Islamic Umayyid Empire conquers Egypt and Sudan. This event triggers the spread of Islam in Africa Spain begins a slave trade in Africa Portugal establishes trade routes in Western Africa Britain begins exporting slaves from Africa Portugal establishes the colony of Angola in Africa Holland enters the slave trade France enters the slave trade Holland establishes a colony in South Africa British seize control of Dutch colony in South AfricaEarly 1800’s- Napoleon begins his conquest of Egypt and Sudan The Boers (of Dutch descent) begin to move north into the inner reaches of southern Africa The “Scramble for Africa” begins The Berlin Conference World War I begins World War II begins
4THE BERLIN CONFERENCE-As the “Scramble for Africa” increased many of the European powers began to intrude into other European territories in Africa. -In 1884, a conference of European countries met in Berlin, Germany to try and reach an agreement on the partitioning of Africa -Representatives from Portugal, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) met
7LINGUA FRANCA-A common language that is agreed to be used by people who speak different languages -A universal language -In former European colonies some common lingua franca languages include English, French, and Portuguese -The most common lingua franca in Africa today is Swahili
8WORLD WAR I-European colonial expansion reaches its peak -Big powers in Africa include Great Britain, France, Germany, Portugal, and Spain -Due to all the battlefield losses that the major powers sustain during the war Africans begin to not see the European colonizers as invincible -Independence movements begin
9WORLD WAR II-Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy try to retake and expand colonial lands in Africa -One of the major fronts during World War II is fought in northern Africa -As the major world powers are occupied with the war more and more African countries decide to declare independence from their colonizers ALLIES AXIS
10END OF COLONIZATION-After World War II most countries in Africa establish their own independence and their own governments -African colonies granted complete autonomy after World War II by the Atlantic Charter (signed by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill) -One by one the European powers begin to pull out their envoys and the African countries gain their complete independence