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Section 2: Empire Building in Africa

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1 Section 2: Empire Building in Africa
Chapter 21 Section 2: Empire Building in Africa

2 West Africa Europeans were interested in;
Peanuts, timber, hides and palm oil. Previous Europeans have profited from the slave trade, but by the late 1800s it have virtually stopped. As European interest in trade grew, so did tensions with governments in this area. In 1874 Great Britain annexed SG30 the Gold Coast (Ghana) and not long after established a protectorate over Nigeria. By 1900 France added French West Africa (Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Benin and Niger to their empire. In addition Germany took control of Togo, Cameroon, German Southwest Africa (Namibia), and German East Africa (Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi).

3 North Africa As the Ottoman Empire declined, Egypt sought independence. Mohammad Ali seized power and established a separate Egyptian state. Britain became interested in Egypt after the Suez canal was constructed, buying the Egyptian shares in 1875. When an Egyptian army revolt began over foreign influence in 1881, Britain suppressed it and assumed control. In 1914 Egypt was made a British protectorate. SG31 1898, British troops seized Sudan , France established control over Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco. 1896, Italy attempts to conquer Ethiopia and was defeated. 1911, Italy seized Turkish Tripoli (Libya).

4 Central Africa David Livingston spent 30 years exploring uncharted (by Europeans) African regions. SG32 His primary goal was to find a navigable river that would open up Central Africa to European Commerce and to Christianity. Henry Stanley was sent to find the explorer after Livingston’s disappearance. SG32 After Livingston’s death in 1873, Stanley remained in Africa to carry on the explorers work. Stanley encouraged the British colonize the Congo Basin, when they were not interested he turned to King Leopold of Belgium. By 1876 Belgium controlled the area. France occupied areas further north, French Equatorial Africa (Chad, C.A.R., Republic of Congo, Gabon).

5 East Africa 1885, Germany and Great Britain were in a rivalry over East Africa. Germany was late to join in on imperialism, Otto von Bismarck had not initially valued colonies. Along with Germany and Great Britain, Portugal and Belgium also had claims. The Berlin Conference was held between 1884 and 1885 to resolve differences and partition Africa. SG33 No African delegations were present.

6 South Africa The Boer Republics
After the Napoleonic Wars the British seized South Africa from the Dutch. Boers, descendants of Dutch colonists, had a population of 200,000 in 1865. By the 1830s the Boers were disgusted with British rule and moved further inland, establishing their own republics, Orange Free State and the Transvaal. SG34 The Boers believe in white supremacy and made no place for non-whites in their society, creating reservations for them.

7 South Africa Cecil Rhodes
Highly influential on British policy in Africa. Rhodes became rich from gold and diamond companies. He gained control of territory that he named Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). Had the goal of connecting British colonies across Africa by railroad. His ambitions eventually led to his downfall, after discovering that he planned to overthrow Boer governments in S. Africa he was forced to resign his position. SG34

8 South Africa The Boer War The removal of Rhodes did not prevent war.
The conflict continued from The British burned crops and forced Boer women and children into detention camps where 20,000 died. The British eventually won, but the cost was very high. An independent Union of South Africa was formed out of the Cape Colony and Boer Republics. To appease Boers the British agreed that only whites, with a few propertied Africans, could vote.

9 Effects of Imperialism
Colonial Rule in Africa SG35 European nations ruled their African territories, much as they did their colonies in SE Asia. Indirect rule was used generally by the British. The system was basically a fraud as European administrators made nearly every decision, which local government serving only to enforce them. The system maintained the old African elites, leading to class and tribal tensions. Most other European nations focused on direct rule. The French practiced a system that sought to assimilate new peoples into French culture.

10 Effects of Imperialism
Rise of African Nationalism A new class of leaders emerged in Africa, educated in colonial schools or in Western Nations. This class admired the west and often came to dislike their own homeland. The also came to dislike colonial policy as it was not democratic or free. The peasants or poor were often put to hard labor for British interests. The middle class struggled to get work that paid a fair salary. Europeans treated most Africans will little respect and fostered further dislike between rulers and ruled. As time went on Africans began to organize and push for independence.

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