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European Colonization of Africa

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1 European Colonization of Africa

2 Why Africa? Stories of Africa’s great wealth are spread throughout western Europe (trade) Missionaries and explorers are sent to Africa by various European countries Natural resources - cash crops, minerals, land Human resources – slaves for colonies

3 Early Colonization Brits establish Capetown as a “rest stop” between Europe & India (East India Co.) Portuguese, British, Spanish, French set up forts along Africa’s west coast for trading purposes Boers, Dutch farmers, come to southern Africa to farm

4 Cecil Rhodes British explorer/capitalist
Responsible for the failed Cape-Cairo railway project Founder of the De Beers Mining Company Owner of the British South Africa Company, which carved out Rhodesia for itself

5 Atlantic Slave Trade 1500s Spanish want more laborers for their colonies in the Americas Slavery was not new to Africa (early kingdoms and Arabs enslaved Africans) Created civil unrest on the continent – tribes would capture members of rival tribes and sell them to the slave traders Triangle Trade (see map) peaks in 18th century Europe sold cheap manufactured goods to Africans (cloth & guns) Africa traded humans (slaves) Middle Passage (journey b/w Africa & Americas – many slaves do not survive) Slaves were sold to the colonists in exchange for cash crops Cash crops would then be sold in Europe Abolishing slavery 1794 – France is first Brits & other European countries follow suit Demand for slaves in the US still high – so slave trade cont. (approx 1860s)

6 Triangle Trade

Who colonized where?

8 The Scramble for Africa
Click the name of the colonizing country to see a list of African colonial holdings

9 French Colonies Chad Djibouti Gabon Republic of the Congo Madagascar
Comoros Mauritius Benin Burkina Faso Côte d'Ivoire Guinea Mali Mauritania Niger Senegal Togo Cameroon Morocco Algeria Tunisia Central African Republic Colony Map

10 British Colonies Egypt South Africa Nigeria Swaziland Ghana Lesotho
Sierra Leone The Gambia Zambia Malawi Zimbabwe South Africa Swaziland Lesotho Sudan Northern Somalia Kenya Uganda Tanzania Colony Map

11 Portuguese Colonies Angola Mozambique Guinea Bissau Cape Verde
São Tomé and Príncipe Colony Map

12 German Colonies German Colonies Tanzania* Burundi ** Rwanda **
Cameroon *** Togo *** Namibia **** German colonies were divided among the European victors of WWI *=became a British colony **=became a Belgian colony ***=became a French colony ****=was occupied by South African government Colony Map

13 Belgian Colonies Italian Colonies Spanish Colonies Libya Eritrea
Democratic Republic of Congo Rwanda (after WWI) Burundi (after WWI) Italian Colonies Libya Eritrea Somalia Spanish Colonies Western Sahara Morocco Equatorial Guinea Colony Map

14 Independent Countries
Liberia (often viewed as a US colony) Ethiopia Colony Map

15 Decolonization/ African Independence
Mid 1900s – Africans are rebelling against colonial rule (nationalism); Europe is losing control over colonies – 27 countries see independence Africans are just going to adopt colonial borders despite the fact these borders ignore ethnic divisions Many rival tribes will be left to fight for control of the country – civil wars erupt all over Africa


17 South Africa Most recent “independence” 1994 - gained independence
from the white Afrikaner government known for its apartheid practices Nelson Mandela First president of an independent South Africa Had been jailed by the Afrikaner gov’t for 27 yrs President from 1994 – 1999 Won Nobel Peace Prize for his struggle to end the injustices of apartheid in 1993

18 Post Independence Problems facing Africa today
Overpopulation/ Population Density Lack of technology & infrastructure development Low GDP & GDP per capita Disease – malaria & AIDS Corrupt governments Civil War Famine Poor use of natural resources Still western imperialism – economic imperialism

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